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NCLEX Review: Neurological System

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Show Notes:

Lou Gehrig’s Disease/ Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Degeneration of the nerves that controls the voluntary muscles.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Muscle Weakness and Twitching
  • Fatigue
  • dysphagia
  • dysarthia (difficulty swallowing)
  • cramping

- Lowe extremities are usually involved late in the disease.

Treatment:

Riluzole (Rilutek)

Side Effects:

  • nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite
  • dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms

Antispasmodics

  • baclofen
  • diazepam

Interventions:

Conserve energy by spacing activities.

Small frequent feedings.

The Nervous System

NCLEX Review on the Neurological System

Time Management:

  • Make sure to read and understand the overview of the Nervous System:
  • Focus in understanding the causes and logic behind each disease.
  • Have an understanding of the signs and symptoms of the disease.
  • Know the medications and the rationale behind using those meds.

Understand that the Nervous system includes the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Peripheral Nervous Sytem (PNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System or the (ANS).

When I say the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, We can simplify at as the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD.

The PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM on the other hand, contains the Cranial NERVES and the SPINAL NERVES.

  • WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, WE ARE BASICALLY TALKING ABOUT THE “SYMPATHETIC” (FIGHT OR FLIGHT) SYSTEM OR THE “PARASYMPATHETIC” SYSTEM.
  • .THE BASIC COMPONENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE NERVE CELL OR NEURON

NEURON

- is the primary component of the nervous system.

- it is composed of cell body (gray matter), axon and dendrites.

BRAIN (Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord).

CEREBRUM- Outermost area (cerebral cortex) is gray matter, deeper area is composed of white matter

  • TWO HEMISPHERES: LEFT AND RIGHT AND EACH HEMISPHERE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO LOBES.

FRONTAL LOBE

  • PERSONALITY, BEHAVIOR
  • HIGHER INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING
  • BROCA’S AREA: (MOTOR SPEECH AREA)

PARIETAL LOBE

  • POSTCENTRAL GYRUS: REGISTERS SENSATION (TOUCH, PRESSURE)
  • INTEGRATES SENSORY INFORMATION

TEMPORAL LOBE

  • HEARING, TASTE, SMELL (hint: location of ears – close the temples)
  • WERNICKE’S AREA: SENSORY SPEECH AREA
  • (UNDERSTANDING, FORMATION OF LANGUAGE)

OCCIPITAL LOBE

  • VISION

Peripheral Nervous System- composed of Spinal Nerves (31)

Autonomic Nervous System- part of the Peripheral Nervous System

  • REGULATES FUNCTIONS OCCURRING AUTOMATICALLY IN THE BODY.
  • ANS REGULATES SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE AND GLANDS.

IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO KNOW EVERY PHYSIOLOGY FOR EVERY SINGLE PART OF THE BRAIN. BUT JUST IN CASE WE GO END UP GETTING LOW LEVEL QUESTIONS ON THE EXAM, THEN IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE UNDERSTAND THE BASIC CONCEPT AND FUNCTION OF EACH AREA. IT WOULD ALSO BE A GREAT IDEA TO KNOW THE CRANIAL NERVES.

The CRANIAL NERVES

GLASCOW COMA SCALE

INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

MENINGITIS

ENCEPHALITIS

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