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Thyroid Hormones

- Lets go over some of the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland.

  1. Synthroid
  2. Levothroid

(levothyroxine) synthetic thyroxine (T4)
MOA: Increase metabolic activity of body
Uses: Drug of choice for long-term
hypothyroidism, simple goiter.

Side Effects

S/S of hyperthyroidism –
tachycardia, sweating, intolerance to heat,
diarrhea, abd. cramping, weight loss,
decreased bone density in the hip & spine.

Antithyroid Drugs

  • PTU (propylthiouracil)
  • Tapazole (methimazole)
  • Lugol’s solution.
  • interfere with synthesis of thyroid hormone and inhibits
    conversion of T4 to the more active T3.
  • Lugol’s Inhibits the release of thyroid hormone, causing them to accumulate in the thyroid gland.

Side Effects:

  • Hypothyroidism
  • hair loss
    allergic reaction

 

HYPOTHYROIDISM

 

  • Hyposecretion of the parathyroid hormone
  • Hyposecretion of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4
  • Decreased rate in the body’s metabolism

Can lead to myxedema coma

Myxedema Coma can be life threatening

Assessment:

  • Hypotension
  • Bradycardia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Edema

Common Drugs used for Hypothyroidism.

  • Liothyronine Sodium (Cytomel)
  • Liotrix (Euthroid)

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

- Hypersectretion of the hormones T3 and T4
- can lead to thyroid storm

Assessment
Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)

THIS CLIENTS WILL TAKE LIFELONG THYROID REPLACEMENTS.

Common Meds (Hyperthyroidism):

 

  • Levothyroxine (Levothroid): watch out for Tachycardia (side effect)
  • Methimazole (Tapazole)
  • Pottasium Iodine, Saturated Solution (SSKI)
  • Radioactive Iodine (Sodium Iodide) 131

Surgery:
Thyroidectomy: During a thryoidectomy it is very important for the nurse to have a tracheostomy set at the bedside just in case of a respiratory emergency.

Corticosteroids

Mineralocorticoids
Example: Florinef (fludrocortisone)

  • *Promote Na and water retention. Help
    maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
    Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid.
    Uses: Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency.

Adverse Effects:

  • Hypokalemia, fluid retention

Glucocorticoids

Common Examples:

  1. Decadron (dexamethasone)
  2. Solu-Medrol (methylpredinisolone)
  3. Prednisone, Celestone (betamethasone)
  4. Aristocort (triancinolone)
  5. Nasonex
  6. Azmacort

*Affect CHO, protein and lipid metabolism

Antiinflammatory response protects cells from
damage related to immune response.

Glucocorticoids (Remember the Side Effects).

Side Effects:

  • Edema
  • hyperglycemia
    hypokalemia
  • muscle wasting
  • peptic ulcer
    hypertension
  • immunosuppression
  • increased WBC
  • can masks signs of infection

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