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Here are some Neurological diseases of the Adults:

Spinal Cord Injury

– Trauma to the Spinal Cord

Spinal Shock (Neurogenic Shock occurs within the first hour of injury)

  • Spinal Shock could cause hypotension
  • Bradycardia, Assess bowel Sounds.
  • Flaccid Paralysis, loss of reflex  activity.

–  Watch out for Autonomic Dysreflexia ( Occurs after the period of Spinal Shock)

  • Severe Headache
  • Severe Hypertension
  • Nasal Stiffness

♣   Cerebral Aneurysm

– a dilation in the weakened wall of a cerebral artery.

Assessment:

  • Headache
  • Nuchal Rigidity
  • Irritability
  • Diplopia

Interventions:

– Administer O2 as prescribed

– Maintain Ct. on bedrest in Semi Fowler’s or sidelying.

Seizures

– Abnormal electrical excessive discharge within the brain.

Epilepsy– Chronic seizure activity.

Types of Seizures:

  • Generalized Seizures

– Tonic- Clonic (begins w/ aura), Absent

  • Partial Seizures

– Simple Partial and Complex Partial.


Myasthenia Gravis

– A Neuromuscular disease characterized by considerable weakness and fatigued muscles.

Parkinsons Disease

– A degenerative disease caused by the depletion of dopamine.

Trigeminal Neuralgia (5th Cranial Nerve)

– A sensory disorder of the fifth cranial nerve.

Bells Palsy (Facial Paralysis)

– Affects the (7th) seventh cranial nerve

– Results in a paralysis in one side of the face.

Guillain- Barre’ Syndrome

acute infectious neuronitis of the cranial and peripheral nerves.

– the immune system destroys its own myelin sheath.

Neurological Diseases in Pediatrics

Pediatric Neuro Diseases

Cerebral Palsy

– Impaired motor and postural movements of a child due to abnormality within the Nervous System.

Assessment:

  • Crying and Irritability
  • Abnormalities with Motor skills
  • Muscle stifness and rigid upper  & lower extremities
  • Moro Tonic Reflex (after 6 months)

Interventions

– Prepare the child for the use of mobilizing devices.

– Provide Safety for Child Dvelopmental Level

– Administration of Prescribed Medications:

  • Antispasmic
  • Anti Seizure

ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

High degree of inattentiveness and great impulse activity in the child.

– Child will show a lower intellectual development and difficulty w/ social skills.

Assessment

– Behavioral Therapy.


Hydrocephalus

An imbalance of the CSF production & absorption causing hemorrhage, tumor and malformations.

Assessment w/ an Infant

  • An increase in head circumference
  • Macewan’s Sign (separated bones in cranium)
  • Bulging Anterior Fontanels

Assessment w/ a Child

  • Irritability and Lethargy
  • Headaches
  • Ataxia
  • Nausea and Vomiting

Late Signs for both: High pitch cries and seizures

Interventions

Surgical: A ventriculoperitoneal shunt (which CNS into peritoneal cavity)

Ventriculoatrial Shunt:  The CSF is drained into the right atrium of the heart.

Reyes Syndrome

– A toxic encephalopathy that is characterized by cerebral edema & fatty liver.

– There is an association with the use of Aspirin. (Usually occurs after infection)

Diagnosis: is liver biopsy.

♣  Encephalitis

Inflammatory process of the CNS.

Assessment: Malaise, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting.

Treatment: Adequate hydration, monitor signs of Increased ICP.

Bacterial Meningitis

– An inflammation of the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid.

Meningococcal Meningitis- Droplet Precaution.

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