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NCLEX Review & Nursing School

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Lets look at several gastrointestinal Diseases that we can see on the NCLEX:

Appendicitis

is an inflammation in the vermiform appendix, it can be gangrenous or perforates

Main Symptoms: Includes a generalized abddominal pain in the upper right abdomen, usually followed by anorexia, tachycardia, and nausea and vomiting.

Peritonitis can usually be a complication of appendicitis.

Treatment:

Apendectomy

Note: Never administer cathartics or enemas to pt. because it can cause a rupture in the appendix.

Gastrointestinal Diseases (Pediatrics)- A quick review glance on the GI diseases that is more common within the Pediatrics population.

Hirschsprung’s Disease (Anglionic Megacolon)

– An absence of ganglion cells in the distal colon.  Usually in these patients, their is a blockage in the large intestine.  In this condition, there is an improper muscle movement within the GI tract, due to this the patient will have symptoms of:

  • Decreased Peristalsis
  • Accumulation of intestinal contents

– This disease is more common in males

– associated with down syndrome

Symptoms in Newborn:

– failure to pass meconium within the first 24-48 hrs.

– refusal to eat, bile stained vomitus, ribbon like stools

Diagnosis:

  • Done through a Barium Enema

Treatment:

– Increase in fluid and fiber intake

Enterobiasis (Pinworms)

– There will be perianal itching

– Diagnosed: through the tape test.

Treatment: Vermox

– Make sure to wash clothings and bed linens in hot water. (this is a good NCLEX question)

Celiac Disease

– There is an intolerance of gluten in the small intestine.

– Gluten is found in oats, wheat, barley and rye.

Diagnosis: involves a jejunum biopsy.

Treatment: replacement of gluten containing foods with:

  • corn and rice.

Gastronintestinal System (Adults)

GI SYSTEM REVIEW (CLOSED DOWN)

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