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A quick summary on the Respiratory System:


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Emphysema

– Irreversible distention of the alveolar & destruction of alveolar wall.

– “Pink Puffer”- when Emphysema is the primary underlying cause.

– “Blue Bloater”- when there is some chronic bronchitis.

Assessment:

– Pt. has a barrel chest.

– Rapid shallow respirations

– Weight loss

– Grunting

– Thick Sputum & peripheral cyanosis

Interventions:

– Low setting of oxygen (2 – 3L / min)

  • – Bronchodilators
  • – Steroids
  • – Expectorants
  • – Antibiotics (if necessary)

 

Asthma

– Can be Intrinsic ” Non Allergenic” (can be caused due to cold temp. or infections)

– Can be Extrensic “Allergenic”  (often related to eczema, triggered by food allergies).

Assessment:

Shortness of Breath

Wheezing

Dry Hacking Cough

Thick tenacious sputum

 

 

♣ Pneumonia

– An infectious disorder (inflammation of parenchyma of lungs)

– Can be caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi.

– Pt’s with bacterial pneumonia can have fever and chills.


♥ Influenza

– A highly contagious viral infection.

Symptoms include:

  • fever
  • chills
  • laryngitis
  • sore throat
  • muscle aches

Treatment:

Controlling of Symptoms

Lung Cancer

Tuberculosis

Pleural Effusion

Empyema

 

Pulmonary Edema

Fluid buildup within the lungs.


♦ Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  (ARDS)

– A noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema.

– Diagnosed through the X- Ray (Ground Glass) Appearance.

Assessments:

– Pt. is Hypoxic

– Presence of crackles or (rhonci)

– Intercostal Retractions

– Refractory Hypoxemia

Treatments:

– Mechanical Ventillation with PEEP or CPAP.

– Make sure that pt. will have at least a PAO2 greater than 60



Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome  (SARS)

– A type of pneumonia that is caused bu the Coronavirus.

Treatment:

– The patient is placed in a negative- pressure isolation room.

– Airborne Precaustions including N95 Masks and eye shield.


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