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NCLEX Review on Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a very important topic in the NCLEX.

Hepatitis is basically a viral infection that causes  inflammation of the liver cells.

Classifications of Hepatitis Virus and its way of TRANSMISSION:

(If we look at the transmission: Hepatitis B and C are the only ones transmitted through blood and sexual contact).

Hepatitis A (transmitted through oral/fecal/water route)
Hepatitis B (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)
Hepatitis C (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)
Hepatitis D (transmitted through oral/fecal/water route)
Hepatitis E (transmitted through oral/fecal/water route)

Hepatitis A

– Incubation period usually lasts from 15-45 days.

– Transmitted primarily through fecal/ oral route.

– Prevention includes sanitation and handwashing.

– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis A.

– Prevention against Hepatitis A includes:

  • Proper Handwashing
  • Avoidance of contaminated food and water
  • Recieving the HAV Vaccine

Hepatitis B

transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors).

– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors)

– The patient can be asymptomatic and others are only diagnosed once abnormality is detected in the liver enzymes.


  • Fever
    Loss of appetite
    Abdominal pain
    Dark urine
    Clay-colored bowel movements
    Jaundice (yellow color in the skin or eyes)

Some of these symptoms can also be present on other classifications of Hepatitis* .

Keep in mind: ↓↓↓↓↓↓↓↓

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C is connected with cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Blood and Blood Products before 1992 were not screened for Hepatitis.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the initial screening test for clients suspected of infected of the Hepatitis C (HCV) Virus.

Liver Biopsy can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of Hepatitis.

Treatment most often used for Hepatitis C is a combination of two medicines, interferon and ribavirin.


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