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Category Archives: NCLEX Review on Safety and Infection Control

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nclex review hamatological system

Hematological System

Hey guys today I want to go over the Hematological disorders that we will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam.  So First lets go over a quick overview of the hematological system.  Now we all know that The Hematologic system is mainly composed of just the blood and plasma (So on the basic level the  components of the hematological system is just blood and plasma).  Lets look at the blood and the essential values that we need to know for the NCLEX.  The BLOOD is composed of several primary components

RBC (RED BLOOD CELLS/ERYTHROCYTES)
WBC (WHITE BLOOD CELLS/ Leuokocytes)
PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)

Lets look at the important blood values that we need to really know for the nclex.

CBC (COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT)

RBC’S= 4.2-6.2 million cells per microliter
HGB= 11.5- 17.5 Grams per deciliter
HCT= 36%- 52%

So again its very important to know our blood values by heart for the nclex.  And its very essential that we know our values to determine if its normal or abnormal so we can further assess our patients’ condition.   We can ask ourselves what can be the reasons for the High and Low Values of these components.  First lets analyze the red blood cells or rbc’s.   If we have a patient with cancer or Polycythemia Vera which is a bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells (primarily red blood cells) of our patient, then the values of our patient’s red blood cell will obviously increase.
Now on the opposite side, what condition do you think tends to bring the red blood cell to be lower than normal: obviously anemia would come in mind.  Now lets look at our white blood cells or our WBC values.  The most common causes of increase of our WBC which we are all very familiar with is Infections.  So why is that , well as we all know our WBC or leukocytes is a vital part of the immune system that basically helps our bodies fight off any infection. So during an infection, our body physiologically will circulate more WBC’s in the blood and transport it to the area where an infection has developed

On the opposite spectrum, lets look at the circumstances of our patient in having a decrease in WBC count.  There are various of Autoimmune disorders such as Lupus which comes in to mind which is a disease of the immune system that leads to long-term or (chronic) inflammation that can destroy the white blood cells or decrease the WBC’s.

Now lets go on our next topic and go over one of the most important hematological disorder that we might encounter in the NCLEX exam which is ANEMIA.  We can basically define Anemia as a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or if the patient has less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin within the blood.   So, with this disease THERE IS A DECREASE NUMBER OF RBC’S.   As a result, there will be a low amount of oxygen circulation within the body.

General symptoms of anemia:
– weakness
– fatigue,
– pale skin

As we know from nursing school There are several types of anemia:

– Sickle Cell Anemia
– Pernicious Anemia
– Aplastic Anemia
– Iron Deficiency Anemia

Now first lets go ahead and look at SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

  • – SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IS AN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE GENETIC DISORDER
  • – AN ABNORMAL SHAPE OF THE RBC’S (SICKLE CELLS).

So basically the cell has an abnormal kind of rigid, sickle shape and because of this it causes a decrease in the cells ability to be flexible and move freely in the body which results in the cell getting stuck within the circulation which is then manifested in pain and other various complications in our patient.

I will continue this review regarding anemia on the next few upcoming videos.  Again I want to thank you guys for taking the time to invest in making sure that you pass your NCLEX.

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hypert

HYPERTENSION

Lets continue on with the second segment of this series and go over one of the most important topics that we need to know for the NCLEX which is HYPERTENSION

so lets begin by defining HYPERTENSION?  what is hypertension
– we can simply define it as A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF PRESSURE WITHIN THE BLOOD VESSELS
– in which a blood pressure EXCEEDS 140 MMHG (millimeters of mercury) SYSTOLIC AND 90 MMHG DIASTOLIC,

* as a nurse we can educate and Remind the patient that lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and proper diet is essential.

we also know that HYPERTENSION CAN LEAD TO

  • – Aneurysms
  • – Atherosclerosis
  • – Heart Failure
  • – Myocardial Infarction

Now our patient can have what we call a primary hypertension or the patient can also have
what we call a Secondary Hypertension which is usually caused by:
– Cushing’s Disease ( now remember that Cushing’s Disease is usually due to our patient having Too much Glucocorticoids)
– Brain Tumors
– Pheochromocytoma

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of hypertension that we need to know for the NCLEX which
are the Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

Lets first go over diuretics

DIURETICS

– Now basically diuretics Helps get rid of the sodium and fluid in the body.
– and it does this by interfering with the sodium absorption in the kidney.
–  as a result Increases the urine output.  Decreases the preload and afterload.

MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS:

  • now as a side effect or opposite reaction from these effects from diuretics our patient is at risk for having
  • – HYPONATREMIA
  • electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium ion concentration in the plasma is lower than normal.
  • yponatremia is generally defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L
  • milliequivalents per liter.
  • – ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
  • – DEHYDRATION

TYPES OF DIURETICS

(Drugs that you will ENCOUNTER IN THE NCLEX EXAM)

  1. POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS such as
    SPIRONOLACTONe (ALDACTONE)
  2. LOOP DIURETICS such
    FUROSEMIDE (LASIX)
  3. OSMOTIC DIURETICS
    and the most common drug is MANNITOL
  4. Lastly we have THIAZADE DIURETICS
    HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HYDRODIURIL)

We need to inform our patient that thiazides can
CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF SODIUM AND WATER.
CAN INDUCE HYPERGLYCEMIA

Now lets go over another group of medications
♣ BETA (ADRENERGIC) BLOCKERS

As you have learned in Nursing School, beta adrenergic blockers are drugs that help lower blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output.  Beta Blockers are an important set of drugs to know for the NCLEX.  Sometimes,there are also other uses of beta blockers
such as treating migraine headaches, treating glaucoma and can also be used to treat myocardial infarctions.

So, since beta blockers is an essential part of the NCLEX we need to understand how this medication functions
Well,  beta blockers simply act by blocking the sympathetic vasomotor response eventually decreasing the Blood pressure in the body.  For the NCLEX, try to remember that beta blockers usually end with the syllable (olol).  Potential side effects of beta blocker that is necessary to know for the NCLEX would include: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and some of the symptoms may MASK hypoglycemia.

Remember the NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

With all this in mind, we need to Make sure that we monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker.  we should also Monitor the client for signs of edema and assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi.  When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.

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NCLEX Review Infection Control

NCLEX Review on Safety and Infection Control

NCLEX Review:  Infection Control

When we are talking about Safety and Infection Control we need to simplify things and really understand what is safety and infection control and what the NCLEX wants us to focus on with this topic.  It is very important to realize that  The “Safety and Infection Control” now makes up about 10 -14% of the questions in the entire NCLEX Exam  This is a huge part of the exam, which means that it can be a factor for us either passing or failing the NCLEX exam.

So lets simplify the SAFETY AND INFECTION CONTROL information that we need to know for this NCLEX Review.  So the first thing that we need to learn is to understand and simplify each category and correlate  which particular disease belongs to each particular category.  We have to know this by heart, and to do this we really need to know the basics of each diseases.

So first lets go over the STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

Standard precautions simply are the basic level of infection control that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time.  Basically we use standard precautions in the care of all patients, in order to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms.

It is also called UNIVERSAL Precaution.

NCLEX Review:  Review on Safety and Infection Control

Personal protective equipment (PPE) that we need  includes: Gowns, Mask and Eye protection

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of Safety and Infection Control in the NCLEX Exam which is knowing all the necessary precautions.  And obviously  in order to be successful in the NCLEX, you have to know this by heart.

The three main transmission based precautions aree Contact precautions– Droplet precautions and Airborne precaution

Lets begin with Contact Precaution.  It is pretty much self explanatory in a sense that it is transmitted through usually skin to skin contact. Now the major diseases that exist that enables the organism to be transferred through contact precaution that you will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam includes mostly skin infections.  Since the skin is the number one barrier during a contact.

  • Varicella zoster

  • Herpes simplex

  • Impetigo

  • Scabies, Staphylococcus

Now lets take a look at Droplet precaution which can occur from a source such as a person during coughing, or sneezing or  talking,  Now these Droplets that contain the microorganisms can generally travel no more than 3 feet from the patient.

What Diseases can we usually see that involves droplet precuations in the NCLEX?

These disease can include

* Diptheria

* Streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis

* Meningitis

* Mumps

* Pertussis

* Scarlet fever

 

Lastly, lets go over the AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

NCLEX DISEASES: AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

DISEASES that you will most likely encounter in the NCLEX.

* TB (m. Tuberculosis) 

* Measles (rubeola)

* Chicken Pox (varicella)

* Shingles (disseminated zoster)

 

Remember that with TB – Tuberculosis you will need a:

  • PRIVATE ROOM

  • NEGATIVE PRESSURE WITH 6-12 AIR EXCHANGES PER HOUR

So its basically a negative pressurized room.  What this does is that it enables a ventillation system that generates negative pressure to allow air to flow into the room and not allow the pathogens to escape.

  • MASK

NCLEX Priority: Make sure to wear our speacial mask which is the N95 MASK FOR TB.

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