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NCLEX Review on Hepatitis

Today we will be talking about one of the most common diseases that you might encounter in the NCLEX which is that of Hepatitis.

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue its as plain and simple as that
And believe it or not a good portion of the people who has the less severe type of hepatitis will show no symptoms whereas others develop the some of the more common symptoms such as yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes, which what we call jaundice
and this is due to the liver not being able to breakdown and get rid of Bilirubin which as a a yellow pigment that is formed when our bodies breakdown our red blood cells in the liver.

now also other most common symptoms can include:
poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

Now as we all know Hepatitis may be temporary (acute) or long term (chronic) depending on whether it lasts for less than or more than six months.

Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, or progress chronic hepatitis, or if not treated can lead to acute liver failure.

Over time the chronic form may progress to scarring of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer.

 

CLASSIFICATIONS of Hepatitis Virus and its way of TRANSMISSION:

Now there are actually 5 types which are hepatitis a b c d and e
but on this quick review we will only be looking at the first three.

(If we look at the transmission: HEPATITIS B AND C are the only ones transmitted through blood and sexual contact).

Hepatitis A (transmitted through oral/fecal/water route)
Hepatitis B (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)
Hepatitis C (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)

 

HEPATITIS A

– Incubation period usually lasts from 15-45 days.
– Transmitted primarily through fecal/ oral route.
– Prevention includes sanitation and handwashing.
– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis A.
– Prevention against Hepatitis A includes:

PROPER HANDWASHING
AVOIDANCE OF CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER
RECIEVING THE HAV VACCINE

 

HEPATITIS B
– transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors).

– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis B.

 

 

HEPATITIS C

– Hepatitis C is transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors)

– The patient can be asymptomatic and others are only diagnosed once abnormality is detected in the liver enzymes.

SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE HEPATITIS C

FEVER
FATIGUE
LOSS OF APPETITE
NAUSEA
VOMITING
ABDOMINAL PAIN
DARK URINE
CLAY-COLORED BOWEL MOVEMENTS
JAUNDICE (YELLOW COLOR IN THE SKIN OR EYES)
SOME OF THESE SYMPTOMS CAN ALSO BE PRESENT ON OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF HEPATITIS* .

NCLEX Review on Hepatitis

HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C is connected with cirrhosis and liver cancer.

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) is the initial screening test for clients suspected of infected of the Hepatitis C (HCV) Virus.
LIVER BIOPSY can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of Hepatitis.
Treatment most often used for Hepatitis C is a combination of two medicines, INTERFERON AND RIBAVIRIN.

 

 

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nclex review hamatological system

Hematological System

Hey guys today I want to go over the Hematological disorders that we will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam.  So First lets go over a quick overview of the hematological system.  Now we all know that The Hematologic system is mainly composed of just the blood and plasma (So on the basic level the  components of the hematological system is just blood and plasma).  Lets look at the blood and the essential values that we need to know for the NCLEX.  The BLOOD is composed of several primary components

RBC (RED BLOOD CELLS/ERYTHROCYTES)
WBC (WHITE BLOOD CELLS/ Leuokocytes)
PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)

Lets look at the important blood values that we need to really know for the nclex.

CBC (COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT)

RBC’S= 4.2-6.2 million cells per microliter
HGB= 11.5- 17.5 Grams per deciliter
HCT= 36%- 52%

So again its very important to know our blood values by heart for the nclex.  And its very essential that we know our values to determine if its normal or abnormal so we can further assess our patients’ condition.   We can ask ourselves what can be the reasons for the High and Low Values of these components.  First lets analyze the red blood cells or rbc’s.   If we have a patient with cancer or Polycythemia Vera which is a bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells (primarily red blood cells) of our patient, then the values of our patient’s red blood cell will obviously increase.
Now on the opposite side, what condition do you think tends to bring the red blood cell to be lower than normal: obviously anemia would come in mind.  Now lets look at our white blood cells or our WBC values.  The most common causes of increase of our WBC which we are all very familiar with is Infections.  So why is that , well as we all know our WBC or leukocytes is a vital part of the immune system that basically helps our bodies fight off any infection. So during an infection, our body physiologically will circulate more WBC’s in the blood and transport it to the area where an infection has developed

On the opposite spectrum, lets look at the circumstances of our patient in having a decrease in WBC count.  There are various of Autoimmune disorders such as Lupus which comes in to mind which is a disease of the immune system that leads to long-term or (chronic) inflammation that can destroy the white blood cells or decrease the WBC’s.

Now lets go on our next topic and go over one of the most important hematological disorder that we might encounter in the NCLEX exam which is ANEMIA.  We can basically define Anemia as a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or if the patient has less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin within the blood.   So, with this disease THERE IS A DECREASE NUMBER OF RBC’S.   As a result, there will be a low amount of oxygen circulation within the body.

General symptoms of anemia:
– weakness
– fatigue,
– pale skin

As we know from nursing school There are several types of anemia:

– Sickle Cell Anemia
– Pernicious Anemia
– Aplastic Anemia
– Iron Deficiency Anemia

Now first lets go ahead and look at SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

  • – SICKLE CELL ANEMIA IS AN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE GENETIC DISORDER
  • – AN ABNORMAL SHAPE OF THE RBC’S (SICKLE CELLS).

So basically the cell has an abnormal kind of rigid, sickle shape and because of this it causes a decrease in the cells ability to be flexible and move freely in the body which results in the cell getting stuck within the circulation which is then manifested in pain and other various complications in our patient.

I will continue this review regarding anemia on the next few upcoming videos.  Again I want to thank you guys for taking the time to invest in making sure that you pass your NCLEX.

 

 

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hypert

HYPERTENSION

Lets continue on with the second segment of this series and go over one of the most important topics that we need to know for the NCLEX which is HYPERTENSION

so lets begin by defining HYPERTENSION?  what is hypertension
– we can simply define it as A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF PRESSURE WITHIN THE BLOOD VESSELS
– in which a blood pressure EXCEEDS 140 MMHG (millimeters of mercury) SYSTOLIC AND 90 MMHG DIASTOLIC,

* as a nurse we can educate and Remind the patient that lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and proper diet is essential.

we also know that HYPERTENSION CAN LEAD TO

  • – Aneurysms
  • – Atherosclerosis
  • – Heart Failure
  • – Myocardial Infarction

Now our patient can have what we call a primary hypertension or the patient can also have
what we call a Secondary Hypertension which is usually caused by:
– Cushing’s Disease ( now remember that Cushing’s Disease is usually due to our patient having Too much Glucocorticoids)
– Brain Tumors
– Pheochromocytoma

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of hypertension that we need to know for the NCLEX which
are the Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

Lets first go over diuretics

DIURETICS

– Now basically diuretics Helps get rid of the sodium and fluid in the body.
– and it does this by interfering with the sodium absorption in the kidney.
–  as a result Increases the urine output.  Decreases the preload and afterload.

MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS:

  • now as a side effect or opposite reaction from these effects from diuretics our patient is at risk for having
  • – HYPONATREMIA
  • electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium ion concentration in the plasma is lower than normal.
  • yponatremia is generally defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L
  • milliequivalents per liter.
  • – ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
  • – DEHYDRATION

TYPES OF DIURETICS

(Drugs that you will ENCOUNTER IN THE NCLEX EXAM)

  1. POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS such as
    SPIRONOLACTONe (ALDACTONE)
  2. LOOP DIURETICS such
    FUROSEMIDE (LASIX)
  3. OSMOTIC DIURETICS
    and the most common drug is MANNITOL
  4. Lastly we have THIAZADE DIURETICS
    HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HYDRODIURIL)

We need to inform our patient that thiazides can
CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF SODIUM AND WATER.
CAN INDUCE HYPERGLYCEMIA

Now lets go over another group of medications
♣ BETA (ADRENERGIC) BLOCKERS

As you have learned in Nursing School, beta adrenergic blockers are drugs that help lower blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output.  Beta Blockers are an important set of drugs to know for the NCLEX.  Sometimes,there are also other uses of beta blockers
such as treating migraine headaches, treating glaucoma and can also be used to treat myocardial infarctions.

So, since beta blockers is an essential part of the NCLEX we need to understand how this medication functions
Well,  beta blockers simply act by blocking the sympathetic vasomotor response eventually decreasing the Blood pressure in the body.  For the NCLEX, try to remember that beta blockers usually end with the syllable (olol).  Potential side effects of beta blocker that is necessary to know for the NCLEX would include: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and some of the symptoms may MASK hypoglycemia.

Remember the NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

With all this in mind, we need to Make sure that we monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker.  we should also Monitor the client for signs of edema and assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi.  When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.

 

 

 

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