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DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER:

  • computed tomography (CT) scans,
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • ultrasound scans.

External-beam radiation therapy

  • – delivered in the form of photon beams (either x-rays or gamma rays)

Tomotherapy
– Tomotherapy machines can capture CT images of the patient’s tumor immediately before treatment sessions, to allow for very precise tumor targeting and sparing of normal tissue.

Proton therapy
External-beam radiation therapy can be delivered by proton beams.

Internal radiation therapy

Brachytherapy
– radiation delivered from radiation sources (radioactive materials) placed inside or on the body.

In brachytherapy, radioactive isotopes are sealed in tiny pellets or “seeds.”

If left in place, after a few weeks or months, the isotopes decay completely and no longer give off radiation.

Remember: *Radioactive iodine (131I)- is used to diagnose (thyroid cancer)

Treatment of Cancer

Diagnostics

  • X ray examination
  • MRO (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
  • Ultrasonography
  • Tumor Markers
  • Mammograhy
  • Cytology Studies

Biopsy

  • Needle
  • Incisional
  • Excisional

REMEMBER FOR THE NCLEX EXAM:

Liver– is the most common site of metastasis with gastrointestinal cancer.

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