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Pituitary Gland Disorders

HYPOPITUITARISM

Insuffecient quantities of anterior pituitary gland hormones.

ASSESSMENT

  • Lethargy
  • Hypothermia
  • Weight loss
  • Amenorrhea
  • Dry Skin
  • Hypotension

– Monitor the patient’s risk for infection.

Treatment

Surgery:  if hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor.

Hormone therapy

  • Corticosteroids (cortisol)
  • Growth hormone
  • Sex hormones (testosterone for men and estrogen for women)
  • Thyroid hormone

HYPERPITUITARISM

Also called Acromegaly and Cushings’s Disease

ACROMEGALY
Often a result of a benign tumor

ASSESMENT

  • – large hands and feet
  • – protruding jaw and forehead

TREATMENT

  • Hypophysectomy
  • Corticosteroids
  • Elevate head at least 30 degrees.
  • Glucocoritcoids
  • Hormones
  • * Surgery ( Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery) to remove the pituitary tumor might be the best treatment.
  Meds. used to control increased GH:
  • Octreotide (Sandostatin)
  • bromocriptine (Parlodel)

DISORDER OF THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.

♣ DIABETES INSIPIDUS


– Hyposecretion of the ADH hormone.
Assessment:

  • POLYURIA (4-24 L/DAY)
  • POLYDIPSIA
  • DEHYDRATION
  • LOW URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.006 OR LOWER
  • FATIGUE
  • HYPOTENSION
  • TACHYCARDIA

– * Fluid Deficit is a priority

Medication:

  • VASOPRESSIN (PITRESSIN) *used as an antidiuretic hormone

Examples of Antidiuretic Hormones:

  • Desmopressin acetate
  • Vasopressin (Pitressin)

Side Effects (Antidiuretic Hormones)

  • Headache
  • Nausea & Vomiting
  • Water Intoxication
  • Hypertension
Vasopressin
  • it’s an antidiuretic hormone
  • prevent the loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and reabsorbing water in the body
  • (Increases BP)=  by constricting (narrowing) blood vessels
Side Effects (VASOPRESSIN)
  • throbbing headache
  • stomach pain, bloating
  • dizziness, nausea
  • blanching of the skin
   ♦  Due to increase urine output -> pt. is in risk of  HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK.

♠ SIADH

♠ Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

– excess ADH is being released

Assessment:

  • FLUID OVERLOAD
  • WEIGHT GAIN
  • HYPERTENSION
  • TACHYCARDIA
  • HYPONATREMIA

Interventions:

  • – Monitor fluid & electrolyte imbalance
  • – Fluid restriction.
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