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Prostate Cancer

– Tumor in the prostate

Risk Factors

People who are at higher risk include:

  • African-American men, who are also likely to develop cancer at every age
  • Men who are older than 60
  • Men who have a father or brother with prostate cancer

Other people at risk include:

  • Men exposed to agent orange exposure
  • Men who abuse alcohol
  • Farmers
  • Men who eat a diet high in fat, especially animal fat
  • Tire plant workers
  • Painters
  • Men who have been exposed to cadmium

Symptoms:

The PSA blood test is often done to screen men for prostate cancer.

* Always remember that Digital Rectal Exams (DRE) should begin at age 40.

other symptoms:

  • Delayed or slowed start of urinary stream
  • Dribbling or leakage of urine, most often after urinating
  • Slow urinary stream
  • Straining when urinating, or not being able to empty out all of the urine
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Bone pain or tenderness, most often in the lower back and pelvic bones (only when the cancer has spread)

TREATMENTS:

  • surgery
  • radiation therapy
  • chemotherapy

SURGERY

  • Surgery to remove the prostate and some of the tissue around it is an option when the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate gland. This surgery is called radical prostatectomy.
  • Possible problems after the surgeries include difficulty controlling urine or bowel movements and erection problems.

RADIATION THERAPY
Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells.

Prostate brachytherapy involves placing radioactive seeds inside the prostate gland.

  • A surgeon inserts small needles through the skin behind your scrotum to inject the seeds. The seeds are so small that you don’t feel them. They can be temporary or permanent.
  • Brachytherapy is often used for men with smaller prostate cancer that is found early and is slow-growing.
  • It also may be given with external beam radiation therapy for some patients with more advanced cancer.
  • Side effects may include pain, swelling or bruising in your penis or scrotum, red-brown urine or semen, impotence, incontinence, and diarrhea.

HORMONE THERAPY
Hormonal therapy is any treatment that decreases the effect of testosterone on prostate cancer.
MONITORING
After treatment for prostate cancer, you will be closely watched to make sure the cancer does not spread. This involves routine doctor check-ups, including serial PSA blood tests (usually every 3 months to 1 year).

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