Skip to content

NCLEX Review & Nursing School

"The Largest NCLEX Online Review" "Nursing School and NCLEX simplified"

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

NCLEX Review Infection Control

NCLEX Review on Safety and Infection Control

NCLEX Review:  Infection Control

When we are talking about Safety and Infection Control we need to simplify things and really understand what is safety and infection control and what the NCLEX wants us to focus on with this topic.  It is very important to realize that  The “Safety and Infection Control” now makes up about 10 -14% of the questions in the entire NCLEX Exam  This is a huge part of the exam, which means that it can be a factor for us either passing or failing the NCLEX exam.

So lets simplify the SAFETY AND INFECTION CONTROL information that we need to know for this NCLEX Review.  So the first thing that we need to learn is to understand and simplify each category and correlate  which particular disease belongs to each particular category.  We have to know this by heart, and to do this we really need to know the basics of each diseases.

So first lets go over the STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

Standard precautions simply are the basic level of infection control that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time.  Basically we use standard precautions in the care of all patients, in order to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms.

It is also called UNIVERSAL Precaution.

NCLEX Review:  Review on Safety and Infection Control

Personal protective equipment (PPE) that we need  includes: Gowns, Mask and Eye protection

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of Safety and Infection Control in the NCLEX Exam which is knowing all the necessary precautions.  And obviously  in order to be successful in the NCLEX, you have to know this by heart.

The three main transmission based precautions aree Contact precautions– Droplet precautions and Airborne precaution

Lets begin with Contact Precaution.  It is pretty much self explanatory in a sense that it is transmitted through usually skin to skin contact. Now the major diseases that exist that enables the organism to be transferred through contact precaution that you will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam includes mostly skin infections.  Since the skin is the number one barrier during a contact.

  • Varicella zoster

  • Herpes simplex

  • Impetigo

  • Scabies, Staphylococcus

Now lets take a look at Droplet precaution which can occur from a source such as a person during coughing, or sneezing or  talking,  Now these Droplets that contain the microorganisms can generally travel no more than 3 feet from the patient.

What Diseases can we usually see that involves droplet precuations in the NCLEX?

These disease can include

* Diptheria

* Streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis

* Meningitis

* Mumps

* Pertussis

* Scarlet fever

 

Lastly, lets go over the AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

NCLEX DISEASES: AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

DISEASES that you will most likely encounter in the NCLEX.

* TB (m. Tuberculosis) 

* Measles (rubeola)

* Chicken Pox (varicella)

* Shingles (disseminated zoster)

 

Remember that with TB – Tuberculosis you will need a:

  • PRIVATE ROOM

  • NEGATIVE PRESSURE WITH 6-12 AIR EXCHANGES PER HOUR

So its basically a negative pressurized room.  What this does is that it enables a ventillation system that generates negative pressure to allow air to flow into the room and not allow the pathogens to escape.

  • MASK

NCLEX Priority: Make sure to wear our speacial mask which is the N95 MASK FOR TB.

Advertisements

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

neuroclex

NCLEX Pharmacology Review

NCLEX Review: Neurological Medications 

MAOI  (Monoamine oxidase inhibitors)

Important Medications in the NCLEX includes

  • Parnate (tranylcypromine sulfate)
  • Nardil (phenelzine sulfate)
Side Effects of MAOI

MAOI Side Effects

  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight gain

Remember: Do not take MAOI’s with TCAs and SSRIs

NCLEX Review: Remember to limit foods that contain high levels of tyramine, such as cheese, pickled foods, beer and wine

MAOIs or Monoamine oxidase inhibitors act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters and thereby increasing their availability. Which gives off positive effects on depression and anxiety. so again basically MAOI’s helps balance certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters and it does this by reducing the amount of monoamine oxidase which the substance that breaks down the neurotransmitters, hence there would be more neurotransmitter in the brain which helps decrease the symptoms of depression.

Now the 2 important MAOI’s drugs that you might encounter in your NCLEX exam includes:

  1. Parnate  (tranylcypromine sulfate)
  2. Nardil  (phenelzine sulfate)

As we learn from our Psych class back in nursing school, We as nurses don’t usually offer MAOI because of the lethal dietary and drug interactions (and this is the most important thing that we have to know for the NCLEX in reagards with MAOI and this is also a big reason why MAOI is usually used as last line of treatment and is used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs (for example SSRI and TCA’s) have failed.

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology

We need to know for the NCLEX that our patient needs to limit foods that contain high levels of tyramine, such as cheese, pickled foods, beer and wine.  And here is why…. well because Tyramine is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure. So basically if we combine tyramine with MAOIs the interaction cause dangerously severe high blood pressure it can trigger a hypertensive crisis… and we don’t want that on our patient.

So again, the biggest tip we can take away from this video is to remember that when giving MAOI’s… avoid food with high levels of tyramine…. so no cheese, pickles and beer or wine.

Study Hard and Good Luck  : )

 

 

Looking for Nursing Homes in New York City:

I find these to be some of the best Nursing Homes in New York City.
www.seniorhug.com 

Tags: , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

prio

NCLEX Review: Neurological Medications 

TCA (Tricyclic Antidepressants)

Medications includes

  • ELAVIL
  • TOFRANIL
Side Effects of TCA’s

Anticholinergic Side Effects

  • BLURRED VISION
  • URINARY RETENTION
  • DRY MOTH
  • CONSTIPATION
  • SEDATION
  • ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION

Remember: Do not take MAOI’s with TCAs and SSRIs

 

 

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

lovepass

 

– Thank You so Much for all the love and support  : )

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

nclexvidpriorization

NCLEX Review Shownotes:

I have mentioned before that pharmacology plays a big role and a big factor with the NCLEX exam. If we encounter the mid level which are basically the competent questions which is exactly what we need to know and what the NCSBN or Board of Nursing wants us to answer correctly in order to pass the NCLEX exam. Then it is expected from us to understand the management and prioritization aspects of certain medications that we have to know for the NCLEX.  That simply means to know and understand side effects or adverse reactions for certain medications and also how management and prioritization would be applied towards Pharmacology in correlation to the impact of the side effects or adverse reactions towards the patient. What it means is basically as a nurse or as a nurse graduate taking the NCLEX exam,  it is our job and our duty to be conscious and aware of certain side effects and how that impacts our client.  Also implications that we need to know for certain medications such as interactions or interventions that will become a priority for us as the nurse, in taking take care of our patient.  This entails knowing the specifics factors such as the ABG’s, vital signs and lab values and all of the symptomatic signs. Now let’s look at a few important examples of the most important pharmacological categories of medications that we will most likely encounter in the NCLEX exam.

NCLEX Review Cardiac Medications

Now let’s begin with the important medications that is used for hypertension, which is diuretics. Lets talk about diuretics, which helps get rid of sodium and fluid in the body. Diuretics is used to lower the blood pressure and therefore promotes excretion of sodium and water. Now with this in mind we can understand that diuretics interferes with the patient’s blood pressure (which means it can significantly drop) as a result: decrease in the preload and afterload in the body.   Therefore, a priority would be giving IV fluids to that patient.   And since there would be sodium absorption in the kidneys, it causes an increases the urine output.

Now let’s go over a specific type of diuretics and start with a potassium sparing diuretics. With a potassium sparing diuretic, it basically promotes the excretion of sodium and water while the retention of potassium (Important to know for NCLEX Review).  And basically is used usually for hypertension and edema and for a patient with hypokalemia or hypokalemic symptoms.   An example of a potassium sparing diuretics would include Spir0nolactone, which will usually be very common in the NCLEX exam. So what is the prioritization for this particular patient:  Obviously the patient could end up having too much potassium and that would cause hyperkalemia, so therefore then we would have to know the symptoms of  hypokalemia (now we all know that Potassium is needed for cells, especially nerve and muscle cells, to function properly) as a result the person can have symptoms that can include irregular heartbeat, nervousness, tingling in the hands, shortness of breath and nausea and vomiting.

Let’s talk about another category of cardiovascular medications which is beta-adrenergic blockers or beta blockers and basically beta blockers helps lower blood pressure and pulse rate.   It is also used to treat headaches, glaucoma and prevent MI or myocardial infartions by blocking the sympathetic motor response of the body.  Always try to remember that the beta blocker medications would usually end in syllables “lol” .  Common Beta Blockers that you can encounter in the NCLEX includes (Metoprolol, Carvedilol, Acebutolol).   Beta blockers block the action of catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and as we all know this causes the fight-or-flight response of the body therefore the opposite effect can be manifested as the adverse reaction.  So, Side effects for patients taking  Beta blockers would include orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea. We need to know that some of the symptoms may mask signs of hypoglycemia in the patient and is manifested as hypoglycemic symptoms.  This is due to the fact that beta blockers normally stimulate hepatic glycogen breakdown in the pancreas and causes the release of glucagon. So we need to take note of that for the NCLEX

Nursing interventions for clients with beta blockers would include interventions such as making sure that we monitor the clients blood pressure, and heart rate.  We also need to monitor the client for signs of edema.  So as the nurse, we should assess the lung sounds for the signs of rales and rhonchi which can be due to obviously fluid overload. When patients are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as protein, B UN and creatinine which can indicate nephrotic syndrome in the kidneys and that can be a problem. Nursing teaching for these patients would include teaching the client to rise slowly because the cause orthostatic hypotension which can become a safety issue and we also need to tell the patients to  report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness and confusion.

Focus on this Topic:

  • Potassium Sparing Diuretics
  • Beta Blockers

♣ Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

DIURETICS

– HELPS GET RID OF THE SODIUM AND FLUID IN THE BODY.
– USED TO LOWER THE BLOOD PRESSURE.
– PROMOTES THE EXCRETION OF SODIUM AND WATER
– DIURETICS INTERFERES WITH THE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN THE KIDNEY.
– INCREASES THE URINE OUTPUT. DECREASES THE PRELOAD AND AFTERLOAD..
If the patients blood pressure drop to low, it is important to give IV FLUIDS to pt.

LETS GO OVER THE CATEGORIES OF DIURETICS ♠

♦ TYPES OF DIURETICS

♣ POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS

It promotes the excretion of soduium and water, while the retention of pottasium

Used for:

HYPERTENSION
EDEMA
HYPERALDOSTERONISM
HYPOKALEMIA
MEDICATION:

SPIRONOLACTON (ALDACTONE)
AMILORIDE (MIDAMOR)
TRIAMTERENE
Now lets go to the SIDE EFFECTS:

First, of course the person can have too much potassium or HYPERKALEMIA:

Signs of HYPERKALEMIA

IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
NERVOUSNESS
TINGLING IN HANDS AND FEET
SHORTNESS OF BREATH
TIREDNESS OR WEAKNESS
OTHER SIDE EFFECTS:

NAUSEA AND VOMITING
CRAMPING AND DIARRHEA
DIZZINESS & HEADACHE

BETA (ADRENERGIC) BLOCKERS

– Helps lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.
– Can be used to treat headaches.
– Can be used to treat glacauma and prevent myocardial infarctions.
– Acts on the system, by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.

For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

SIDE EFFECTS:

ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
BRADYCARDIA
NAUSEA AND VOMITING
DIARRHEA
NOTE: Some of the symptoms may MASK signs of Hypoglycemia

♠ HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker. Monitor the client for signs of edema. The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi. When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome. Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever. It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

CARDIAC PHARMACOLOGY

♣ NCLEX Review Notes:.

♣ NCLEX REVIEW PHARMACOLOGY

Drugs Used for treating Hypertension:

BETA BLOCKERS
– REDUCES THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND DECREASES THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM RESPONSE.
– BLOCKS THE BETA RECEPTOR, CAUSING A DECREASE IN BLOOD PRESSURE.
– MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “OLOL’S”: METROPOLOL, PROPANALOL, ACEBUTOLOL, NADOLOL.
– USED FOR HYPERTENSION, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ANGINA.
ADVERSE EFFECTS CAN INCLUDE: BRADYCARDIA, HYPOTENSION AND HYPOGLYCEMIA (DISTRUPTS THE LIVER’S ABILITY TO CONVERT GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE).

If you are looking for the right Nursing Home for your loved ones. Please visit SeniorHug.

 

Tags: , , , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

vidpharmnclexx

NCLEX Pharmacology

A Quick Review on Pharmacology

♣ Show Notes

NCLEX Review on Pharmacology

The fact is that pharmacology will always be a big part in your NCLEX Exam, and can be a huge catalyst in whether you pass or fail your NCLEX Exam.  It is quite important for us to focus a lot on the content that pertains to medications, if we are reviewing for the NCLEX.  The NCSBN (who is responsible for developing the NCLEX Exam) defines the category of Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies as a sub-category within the Physiological Integrity area (of the exam)  in which the nurse is basically providing care related to the administration of medications and parenteral therapies.

To be more specific, Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapy has contents that  includes but is not limited to:

  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions
  • Expected Actions/Outcomes
  • Medication Administration
  • Blood and Blood Products
  • Parenteral/Intravenous Therapies
  • Central Venous Access Devices
  • Pharmacological Pain Management
  • Dosage Calculation

First, I want to take a step back and look at Pharmacology from a technical sense and look at it more in depth.

What is Pharmacology?

♠ PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacokinetics– The study if how drugs are being absorbed, distribuited, metabolized and excreted by the body.
Pharmacodynamics– is the study of how drugs are being used by the body.
Pharmacotherapeutics– the study of how the client responds to the particular drugs.

What’s in a drug name?
Chemical Name:
This tells you the chemical makeup of the drug.
Generic Name
This name is given by the company that developed the drug.
Trade Name
This is the name given to the drug by the company in which the medication originated.

The Seven Rights of Administering Drugs

  • Right Client
  • Right Route
  • Right Drug
  • Right Dose
  • Right Amount
  • Right Time
  • Right Documentation
  • Right to refuse treatment

Any drug can have a CHEMICAL NAME, A GENERIC NAME AND A BRAND OR TRADE NAME.

  • The generic name of a drug is suggested by the manufacturer, and accepted by the international committee.
  • How the drug is being affected affects the body and the patient’s response is called the effect.
  • Efficacy refers to the degree to which a drug is able to induce it’s maximal effects.
  • Adverse Effect is any unexpected or unintended response to a therapeutic use of a drug, it is also called side effect.

During this review, I want to focus specifically towards the drugs that is mostly in patients with hypertension.

DRUGS USED WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM

Cardiac Pharmacology

♣ Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

DIURETICS

  • – Helps get rid of the sodium and fluid in the body.
  • – Used to lower the blood pressure.
    – Promotes the excretion of sodium and water
    – Diuretics interferes with the sodium absorption in the kidney.
    – Increases the urine output.  Decreases the preload and afterload..

If the patients blood pressure drop to low, it is important to give IV fluids to pt.

LETS GO OVER THE CATEGORIES OF DIURETICS ♠

♦ TYPES OF DIURETICS

♣ POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS

It promotes the excretion of soduium and water, while the retention of pottasium

Used for:

  • Hypertension
  • Edema
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Hypokalemia

Medication:

  • SPIRONOLACTON (ALDACTONE)
  • AMILORIDE (MIDAMOR)
  • TRIAMTERENE

Now lets go to the side effects:

First, of course the person can have too much potassium or HYPERKALEMIA:

Signs of HYPERKALEMIA

  • irregular heartbeat
  • nervousness
  • tingling in hands and feet
  • shortness of breath
  • tiredness or weakness

OTHER SIDE EFFECTS:

  1. Nausea and vomiting
  2. Cramping and diarrhea
  3. Dizziness & headache

Loop Diuretics

  • BUMETANIDE (BUMEX)
  • FUROSEMIDE (LASIX)

Osmotic Diuretics

MANNITOL

  • Thizade Diuretics

HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HYDRODIURIL)
CHLOROTHIAZIDE (DIURIL)
CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF SODIUM AND WATER.
♣ CAN INDUCE HYPERGLYCEMIA

Very Important for the NCLEX:

SIDE EFFECTS OF DIURETICS

  • Frequent urination
  • Electrolyte abnormalitie
  • Muscle cramps or weakness
  • Blurred vision
  • confusion
  • headache
  • increased perspiration (sweating)
  • restlessness

BETA (ADRENERGIC)  BLOCKERS

– Helps lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.
– Can be used to treat headaches.
– Can be used to treat glacauma and prevent myocardial infarctions.
– Acts on the system, by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.

For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • bradycardia
  • nausea and vomiting
  • diarrhea

NOTE: Some of the symptoms may MASK signs of Hypoglycemia

♠ HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker.  Monitor the client for signs of edema.  The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi.  When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.  Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever.  It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

Cardiac Pharmacology

♣ Calcium Channel Blockers

  1. – PREVENTS THE MOVEMENT MECHANISM OF CALCIUM WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM.
  2. – THEREFORE DECREASING THE CARDIAC WORKLOAD, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTILIY.
  3. – MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “DIPINE” : DILITAZEM (CARDIZEM), AMLOPIDINE (NORVASC), NEFEDIPINE, NICARDIPINE.
  4. – USED TO TREAT ANGINA.
  • Remember:

– Blocks the calcium channels in the heart, causing a decrease in contractility.
Decreases the workload of the heart.

Used for:
Hypertension

Medications:

  • Nifedipine (Procardia)
  • Amplodipine (Norvasc)
  • Do not give Norvasc with grapefruit, causees increase in drug level.
  • Verapamil (Isoptin)
  • Diltiazem (Cardizem)

SIDE EFFECTS:

Constipation
Nausea
Headache
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
Drowsiness

Remember:

  • Make sure to monitor the heart rate and the blood pressure.
  • Hold medication if HR is less than 60 or if BP is less than BP.

♠ ACE INHIBITOR

  1. – ACE INHIBITORS “BLOCKS” THE CONVERSION OF ANGIOTENSIN 1 TO ANGIOTENSIN 2.
  2. – ALTERS THE “BLOOD PRESSURE” MECHANISM THROUGH THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
  3. MEDICATIONS INCLUDES THE “PRIL” : CATOPRIL, ENALAPRIL, LISINOPRIL, RAMIPRIL.

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • COUGH
  • TACHYCARDIA
  • NAUSEA AND VOMITING.

Remember:
GIVE ON AN EMPTY STOMACH OR 2-3 HRS. AFTER A MEAL.

NCLEX Review Pharmacology

Drugs Used for treating Hypertension:

♣ ACE INHIBITORS

♥ BETA BLOCKERS

♦ CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS

 REMEMBER FOR YOUR NCLEX EXAM:

  • ACE INHIBITOR
  1. – ACE INHIBITORS “BLOCKS” THE CONVERSION OF ANGIOTENSIN 1 TO ANGIOTENSIN 2.
  2. – ALTERS THE “BLOOD PRESSURE” MECHANISM THROUGH THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
  3. MEDICATIONS INCLUDES THE “PRIL” : CATOPRIL, ENALAPRIL, LISINOPRIL, RAMIPRIL.
  4. SIDE EFFECTS: COUGH, TACHYCARDIA, NAUSEA AND VOMITING.
  5. GIVE ON AN EMPTY STOMACH OR 2-3 HRS. AFTER A MEAL.
  • BETA BLOCKERS
  1. – REDUCES THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND DECREASES THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM RESPONSE.
  2. – BLOCKS THE BETA RECEPTOR, CAUSING A DECREASE IN BLOOD PRESSURE.
  3. – MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “OLOL’S”: METROPOLOL, PROPANALOL, ACEBUTOLOL, NADOLOL.
  4. – USED FOR HYPERTENSION, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ANGINA.
  5. ADVERSE EFFECTS CAN INCLUDE: BRADYCARDIA, HYPOTENSION AND HYPOGLYCEMIA (DISTRUPTS THE LIVER’S ABILITY TO CONVERT GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE).
  • CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
  1. – PREVENTS THE MOVEMENT MECHANISM OF CALCIUM WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM.
  2. – THEREFORE DECREASING THE CARDIAC WORKLOAD, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTILIY.
  3. – MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “DIPINE” : DILITAZEM (CARDIZEM), AMLOPIDINE (NORVASC), NEFEDIPINE, NICARDIPINE.
  4. – USED TO TREAT ANGINA.

 

 

CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES

Digoxin

  • IS A CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE
  • AN ANTIARRYTHMIC
  • IT INCREASES CARDIAC OUTPUT
  • SLOWS DOWN THE HEART RATE

Watch for Digoxin Toxicity:

Assessment and Signs of Digoxin Toxicity:

  • VISION CHANGES (HALO EFFECT)
  • NAUSEA AND VOMITING
  • BRADYCARDIA AND ANOREXIA
  • ANOREXIA

 

Anticoagulants

Avoid Herbs such as  ‘G’ HERBS (GINSING, GINGER, GINKO, GARLIC) when using anticoagulant drugs.

Aspirin

  • CAN ALSO BE USED AS A BLOOD THINNER
  • IRRITATES THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES
  • WATCH OUT FOR “BLACK TARRY” LOOKING STOOLS (COULD BE A SIGN OF INTESTINAL BLEEDING)
  • NEVER GIVE YOUR CHILDREN ASPIRIN, CAN CAUS  REYE’S SYNDROME.

Heparin:

  • MAKE SURE TO CHECK THE PTT
  • ANTIDOTE IS PROTAMINE SULFATE
  • CAN BE SAFELY GIVEN DURING PREGNANCY.

Coumadin

  • CHECK THE PT AND THE INR
  • ANTIDOTE IS VITAMIN K

Lovenox

  • LOVENOX, ALSO CALLED ENOXAPARIN, IS A FORM OF HEPARIN CALLED FRACTIONATED HEPARIN.

NCLEX Review: Pharmacology Adverse Reactions/ Side Effects

CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS

ACE Inhibitors

  • HYPOTENSION (MOST COMMON)
  • COUGH ♣(COMMON NCLEX QUESTION)
  • CHECK ELECTROLYTES FOR (HYPERKALEMIA)

Calcium Channel Blocker

  • FATIGUE, HEADACHE
  • DROWSINESS
  • DYSRHYTMIAS
  • DO NOT GIVE TO PT’S WITH 2ND OR 3RD DEGREE HEARTBLOCK

Vasodilators

  • PALPITATIONS, CRAMPS
  • NAUSEA & VOMITING
  • BONE MARROW SUPPRESSION
  • CONTRAINDICATED IN PT’S W/ CAD
  • TAKE W/ FOOD TO DECREASE GI UPSET.

Diuretics

  • THIAZIDE
  • LOOP
  • OSMOTIC

Watch for electrolyte imbalance and dehydration.

Pottasium Sparing Diuretics

  • NAUSEA AND VOMITING
  • WATCH FOR ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE SUCH AS
  • HYPERKALEMIA AND HYPONATREMIA.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM PHARMACOLOGY

  • PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU) : HYPERTHYROID MEDICATION
  • FATIGUE, DROWSINESS
  • BRADYCARDIA, HEADACHE

Cortisone, Prednisone (Cortisole Replacement)

  • WEIGHT GAIN ♣
  • DECREASED IMMUNITY ♥
  • NAUSEA & VOMITING

Iodine Product (Loguls Solution)

  • USED FOR THYROID STORM
  • NAUSEA & VOMITING
  • BRADYCARDIA, HEADACHE

Levothyroixine (Synthroid) : Hypothyroid Medication

  • TACHYCARDIA ♦
  • NAUSEA & VOMITING

Glimepride (Amaryl), Glipizide (Glucotrol)

  • USED TO TREAT HYPERGLYCEMIA
  • BE CAREFUL TO WATCH FOR HYPOGLYCEMIA ♣

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM DRUGS

Corticosteroids (decreases inflammation)

  • INCREASED BP
  • HYPERGLYCEMIA ♥
  • WATCH OUT FOR CUSHING’S SYNDROME

Bronchodilators (relaxed bronchial muscle)

  • HEADACHE, TACHYCARDIA
  • PALPITATIONS
  • NAUSEA AND VOMITING

TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS

Isoniazid (INH)

  • B6 DEFICIENCY
  • OBSERVE PT. FOR JAUNDICE

 

 

 

Some of the Best Nursing Homes in New York  Senior Hug.

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexstudyreview2

NCLEX Review Shownotes:

Understand that the Nervous system includes the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Peripheral Nervous Sytem (PNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System or the (ANS).

When I say the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, We can simplify at as the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD.

The PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM on the other hand, contains the CRANIAL NERVES and the SPINAL NERVES.

  • WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYTEM, WE ARE BASICALLY TALKING ABOUT THE “SYMPATHETIC” (FIGHT OR FLIGHT) SYSTEM OR THE “PARASYMPATHETIC” SYSTEM.
  • .THE BASIC COMPONENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE NERVE CELL OR NEURON

NEURON

– is the primary component of the nervous system.

– it is composed of cell body (gray matter), axon and dendrites.

BRAIN  (Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord).

CEREBRUM- Outermost area (cerebral cortex) is gray matter, deeper area is composed of white matter

  • TWO HEMISPHERES: LEFT AND RIGHT AND EACH HEMISPHERE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO LOBES.

FRONTAL LOBE

  • PERSONALITY, BEHAVIOR
  • HIGHER INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING
  • BROCA’S AREA: (MOTOR SPEECH AREA)

PARIETAL LOBE

  • POSTCENTRAL GYRUS: REGISTERS SENSATION (TOUCH, PRESSURE)
  • INTEGRATES SENSORY INFORMATION

TEMPORAL LOBE

  • HEARING, TASTE, SMELL (HINT: LOCATION OF EARS – CLOSE THE TEMPLES)
  • WERNICKE’S AREA: SENSORY SPEECH AREA
  • (UNDERSTANDING, FORMATION OF LANGUAGE)

OCCIPITAL LOBE

  • VISION

Peripheral Nervous System- composed of Spinal Nerves (31)

Autonomic Nervous System- part of the Peripheral Nervous System

  • REGULATES FUNCTIONS OCCURRING AUTOMATICALLY IN THE BODY.
  • ANS REGULATES SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE AND GLANDS.

IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO KNOW EVERY PHYSIOLOGY FOR EVERY SINGLE PART OF THE BRAIN.  BUT JUST IN CASE WE END UP GETTING LOW LEVEL QUESTIONS ON THE EXAM, THEN IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE UNDERSTAND THE BASIC CONCEPT AND FUNCTION OF EACH AREA. IT WOULD ALSO BE A GREAT IDEA TO KNOW THE CRANIAL NERVES.

Quick NCLEX Overview:

EYE AND EAR DISORDERS

GLAUCOMA

Glaucoma: there is an increased of intraocular pressure in the eye.

There are two types:

  1. OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA OR “PRIMARY” GLAUCOMA
  2. PRIMARY ANGLE GLAUCOMA.

Open angle glaucoma is slow in onset and chronic, while the primary angle glaucoma needs immediate treatment.

Open Angle Glaucoma

Bilateral

Acute Angle-closure Glaucoma

Unilateral

TREATMENT

Beta Adrenergic Blockers

Cholinergic Agents (Pilocarpine) ♣ (Make sure to know this for the NCLEX)

AVOID ANTICHOLINERGICS (Atropine)

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

%d bloggers like this: