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NCLEX Review & Nursing School

"The Largest NCLEX Online Review" "Nursing School and NCLEX simplified"

The NCLEX exam is a content based exam in which you are tested based on your overall knowledge  and ability of the Nursing content.  It is a computerized adaptive exam in which you need to answer a certain amount of questions correctly deemed acceptable by NCBSN.  Although there are plenty of strategies and techniques you can use to succeed in passing your NCLEX exam, it very important to know and understand the NCLEX contents.   At the end of the day, you are being tested based on the contents that you either fully know or not.  That is why it is very important to keep doing NCLEX questions, because it enables us to get familiarized with the NCLEX and is also a great method in learning and re-learning NCLEX contents.

(Some LINKS are only available on the actual NCLEX 26 Course)

 NCLEX CATEGORIES:

(Some LINKS are only available on the actual NCLEX 26 Course)

__________________________________

TOTAL STUDY TIME: Approx. 26 Hrs.

 

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Why do plenty of people fail the NCLEX Exam ?

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I have spoken to several people in which a few have taken their NCLEX exam and passed while several had taken it and failed.  As an NCLEX Review instructor in my local area, I was very curious about the pattern and reason why test takers fail their  NCLEX or even fail it multiple times.  There are various factors and circumstances that plays a role in a person not being successful with their NCLEX Exam.  Some of these factors includes:

1. Poor Time Management

– Without actually taking down notes of how your time is spent, you can easily waste “plenty” of your precious time doing unproductive things that does not benefit you in passing your NCLEX Exam.

2. Family and Work Priority

– This can sometimes be a very difficult situation.  There are plenty of circumstances in which a person is a single parent to a child or (children) and is also the bread winner of the family.

3. No Passion, Unmotivated

– The lack of drive or interest with the NCLEX can be a big factor in one’s success in passing their NCLEX Exam.  Lack of passion and motivation enables lack of engagement which results in LACK of study habits and NOT caring about their ABILITY to pass the NCLEX.

4. Incorrect Study Strategies

Like I have mentioned in the video (above), it is very important to use all avenues of “study strategies.”

5. Lack of Resources

Sometimes the lack of proper resources whether it’s printed materials (such as books) or online and cd’s, can lower someone’s chances of passing their NCLEX Exam.

The Three C’s needed to pass the NCLEX

1. CONFIDENCE:

CONFIDENT THAT YOU ARE GOING TO PASS THE NCLEX EXAM.

Plenty have said that “Confidence” is everything. It definitely is, but only to a certain degree as we all know. A person taking the NCLEX who have studied only but a couple days prior to the exam could be very “Confident”, that he/she will pass the test, but reality and logic would concur the opposite. No matter how “CONFIDENT” you maybe, you will NOT pass the NCLEX, by only a couple nights worth of studying, and that’s a FACT. One of the things that has held a lot of people from achieving their goals is their lack of self-confidence and the need to overcome that fear. By working on your self-confidence and self-esteem, I believe that we can achieve anything, keep note that millions of Nurses worldwide have taken the NCLEX and passed, (so what makes you an exemption). It is important to break through that wall of fear and come out on the other side. Think positive, as cliche as it may sound, thinking positive has more advantages than you may think. One of the best way in implementing positive thinking is through the killing of negative thoughts.

2. COMMITMENT:

COMMITTED IN DOING EVERYTHING, TO PASS THIS EXAM.

More than just thinking positive, you have to put things into action. Action, actually, is the key to developing self-confidence. It’s one thing to learn to think positive, but when you start acting on it, you change yourself, one action at a time. You are what you do, and so if you change what you do, you change what you are. Act in a positive way, take action instead of telling yourself you can’t, be positive. Talk to people in a positive way, put energy into your actions. You’ll soon start to notice a difference.

3. CONCENTRATION:

EXTREME FOCUS TOWARDS YOUR GOAL IN PASSING THE NCLEX.

When we talk about concentration, it is basically our ability to focus within the journey of studying for the NCLEX. there is no one way to find focus, because it takes a little bit of motivation and some stimulus in order to reach that ultimate focus. The best thing one can do is to clear everything away and create a little space of tranquil focus. Aside from turning of the television and the radio, one of the best way I find that really helps is by turning off the Internet. Shut off your connection, unplug your router, or best yet, go to a place where the is no Internet (yes, those still exist). This is the absolute best way to find focus. Close all programs and windows other than what you need for this one task.

HOW TO INCREASE YOUR FOCUS ABILITIES

If you can’t focus on one task for very long, don’t worry. That’s normal. Our brains have been trained by technology and society to switch tasks often. The way to beat that is to set up a positive feedback cycle for focusing. Here’s how:

Start small. You only need to focus for one minute at first. Clear everything away, pick your one important task, and just do it for one minute without switching. This is hard to do in the beginning but if you consciously focus on focusing, you can do it. It’s just a minute.

Reward yourself. The reward for focusing for one minute can be one minute (or 30 seconds) of checking whatever you want. Email, Facebook, whatever. Or get up and take a one-minute walk. Stretch, drink some water, massage your neck, enjoy your small victory. Empires are created with small victories.

Passion is very important, instead of looking at the “process” of studying for the NCLEX as something that is BORING and DREADFUL, we can look at it as something that we can passionate about, which is learning and acquiring as much knowledge as we can towards anatomy, physiology and diseases. Enjoy and just have fun.

Failing and Passing

WHY CERTAIN TYPES OF PEOPLE FAIL AND OTHERS PASS THE NCLEX.

I had an opportunity and some time to conversate with different people that are on the process of taking or have already taken the NCLEX exam. I have heard of other people’s stories and read other NCLEX takers’ journey towards studying and preparing for the NCLEX. What I have observed from these talks were many several things that is worth sharing. these are based on character and different situational circumstances that different people encounter throughout their NCLEX experience. What I learned from these people was the fact that NCLEX success is based a lot upon the hard work, motivation and passion that accompanied the review. Passing the NCLEX is not soley based on a person’s past success in Nursing School, although that can become a factor.

TYPE OF TEST TAKERS:

On the other hand, I have met some graduates who have studied months and months for this exam, yet still failed the NCLEX. Based on statistical surveys and some research, I was able to pinpoint different situations in which there are different categories of graduate (Nursing) Students who have taken the NCLEX

NCLEX TAKER A

Circumstance: This person usually worked part time while in school, could be married with kids, or recently just got married. He/she usually have had a previous Bachelors (degrees) or Certifications on a specific field and realized that Nursing is a more practical and a better investment for the person. This person would usually have bills to pay therefore, he/she is really very serious towards his/her studies. This person usually has the highest chances of passing the NCLEX. The motivation and the person’s circumstance enables the person to give it their all and start working.

NCLEX TAKER B

Circumstance: Graduated Nursing School at an early age. Went straight to Nursing School right after graduating High School. This fresh graduate is usually single with no kids, while working part time or just in school full time. This person usually has plenty of time in their hands and will usually put of taking the Nclex a little later, which is a big mistake. This person has a lesser chance of passing the NCLEX, during the first try. But with the enough free time that they have, eventually they will pass the NCLEX.

NCLEX TAKER C

Circumstance: This is the person’s second career. Usually has graduated in an Accelerated program who caters to those who have recently graduated. The person usually has a family at the present moment and cannot wait to start working and make money. Most of the people in this area usually are still paying for student loans from the previous degree that he/she had prior to graduating Nursing School. This is a person who is highly motivated and is very excited for a new career start. This person tries their best to pass the NCLEX on their first try and start their new career move as a NURSE.

Best Way to Study For the NCLEX

(CLICK THE PICTURE BELOW TO ENLARGE)


By: AllNursingNotes

Ultimate NCLEX Review on Medications Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology

Neurology Pharmacology

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) NCLEX Review

NCLEX Review on Seizure

Meningitis NCLEX Review

Meningitis  (By: AllNursingNotes)

Lets take a quick look at Meningitis and what we need to know for the NCLEX.

Meningitis is simply:

– an inflammation of the meninges within the brain and spinal cord.

  • * Usually caused by Niesseria meningitidis, Group B Strep and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Again, the two main culprit for Meningitis are

  1. Niesseria meningitidis
  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae

Assessment findings on the patient:

  • * Positive Brudzinski’s Sign

– There is some neck stiffness that causes a patient’s hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed

  • * Positive Kernig’s Sign

– With the patient lying flat, if the patient flexes a hip 90 degrees, and then attempts to extend the lower leg at the knee. Pain on extension is a positive sign.

  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise

Diagnostic Evaluation:

  • Lumbar Puncture
  • Chest X rays

NCLEX Review on Bells Palsy

We are going  to look at NCLEX Review on Neurological Medications (Pharmacology)

To review neurological pharmacology for the NCLEX, it is very important to simplify and of course UNDERSTAND  Neuro medications.

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology: Lets first look at the drugs that affects the PNS.  For the NCLEX, it is very important to understand that the Parasympathetic Nervous System is focused primarily on:

  • – Pupil Constriction (Miosis)
  • – Lacrimation
  • – Salivation
  • – Bronchoconstriction

PNS Medications can also decrease the Heart rate and stimulate gastric secretions.

We can divide the PNS Medications into 4 different groups:

  1. Cholinergic Agonists
  2. Cholinesterase Inhibitor
  3. Anticholinergics
  4. Dopaminergics

NCLEX Review on Cholinergic Medications

Cholinergic Drugs

– Is also called Cholinergic Agonist
– stimulates cholinergic receptors
– mimics acetylchoine

– Used for Urinary Retention (Bethanicol Chloride *Urecholine)

Remeber for the NCLEX, that when we talk about Cholinergic Medications we focus towards the PNS.

Cholinergic drugs produce the same effects as acetylcholine.

Remember for the NCLEX:
– Direct acting cholinergicd are contraindicated with patients with asthma, because it can cause BRONCHOSPASM.

Uses:
Cholinergic muscle stimulants are used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis

NCLEX Drugs:

  • ambenonium chloride (Mytelase)
  • edrophonium chloride (Tensilon)
  • neostigmine (Prostigmine)
  • piridogstimina (Mestinœn).

Cholinergic drugs are also used in control of glaucoma.

NCLEX Drugs:

  • demecarium (Humorsol)
  • echthiophate (Phospholine iodide).

Drugs:

  • Bethanecol Chloride
  • Pilocarpine (Pilocar) *used for glaucoma

Side Effects:

  • Headaches
  • Hypotension
  • Miosis
  • Diarrhea/Cramping
  • Increased Salivation (Dry Mouth)
  • Nausea and Vomiting

Anticholinergic Medications

– Is called Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

  • Inhibits ACh/ Acetylcholine.

– Is also called (Cholinergic Blockers)-
– Helps control the tremors-
– Used to help improve memory in pts. w/ Alzheimer’s Disease (Donezepil Hydrochloride).
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)
– Benztropine Mesylate (Cogentin)
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)

  • Side Effects
    – Salivation
  • – Sweating
  • – Flushing
  • – Headache
  • – Hypotension
  • – Bradycardia

 

Anti-Myasthenic Pharmacology NCLEX Review

– A good use for anti-cholinergic drugs would be for Myasthenia Gravis.

Anti-Myasthenic Medications
– relieves muscle weakness with myasthenia gravis.
– used to diagnose Myasthenia Gravis
– used to distinguish cholinergic crisis from myasthenia gravis.

NCLEX DRUGS:
– Ambenonium Chloride (Mytelase)
– Endrophonium Chloride (Tensilon)
– Neostigmine Bromide (Prostigmin)
– Pyridostigmine Bromide (Mestinon)

ANTICONVULSANTS 

NCLEX Review: Anticonvulsant Medications act upon the CNS or the Central Nervous System.  Anticonvulsant medications helps decrease the firing and inhibits the spread of nerve impulses which results in stabilization of abnormal cells.

The 4 Main Types of Anticonvulsant Medications to know for the NCLEX includes:

  1. Hydantoins
  2. Barbituates
  3. Benzodiazepines
  4. Succinimides

Carbamazepine (Tegretol):
– Can be used for Trigeminal Neuralgia
Used when no response to Lithium

Side Effects:
S/E: Sedation,
granulocytosis
aplastic anemia so
* Make sure to MONITOR the CBC in patient.

NX: monitor CBC and alert for fever/sore throat; birth defects

Valproic Acid: Valproate (Depakene, Depakote):
A psychiatric medication that is used w/manic or schizoaffective;

Other Uses for this psychiatric medication:

  • Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
  • Myoclonic Seizures
  • Partial Seizures

Side Effects:
Severe/Fatal Hepatotoxicity, ↓ platelets, neural tube defects
NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS in Fetus
Rare but FATAL  HEPATOTOXICITY
GI Distress
Weight Gain

Clonazepam (Klonopin):
Benzodiazepine medication for acute mania, acute help while waiting
for Lithium effects to occur ƒ

S/E: Sedation, Anoxia, Disinhibition
effect

HYDANTOINS
– used to treat seizures.
PHENYTOIN (Dilantin)A medication usually seen on the NCLEX exam.
* Decreases the effects of birth control pills.
Dilantin/Phenytoin  10-20 mcg/ml
– Diluted with Normal Saline.

Side Effects:

  • Gingival Hyperplasia (gums that bleed easily)
  • Slurred Speech
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation

BARBITUATES
– used for tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures.

NCLEX DRUGS:
– Phenobarbital (Luminal)
– Primidone (Mysoline)

*Interacts with ALCOHOL.

Side Effects:

  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Hypotension
  • Respiratory Depression

Patient with Bell’s Palsy can be given TYLENOL (Acetominophen)
If overdose, antidote for TYLENOL is Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

 

(Neuro Medications)Based on the 4 Neuromuscular diseases

NCLEX Review on Anti-Parkinsonian Medications
– releases dopamine
– restores balance of neurotransmitters acetylcholine and dopamine in CNS.
* Virtually all of the available drug therapies act to increase the level of dopamine in the brain.

– TWO TYPES:
1. Anticholinergic Medications
2. Dopaminergic Medications

Anticholinergic Medications (Cholinergic Blockers)
– Helps control the tremors
– Benztropine Mesylate (Cogentin)
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)

Dopaminergic Medications
– Levodopa (Dopar)
– Carbidopa-Levodopa (Sinemet)

* Levodopa is contraindicates with patients with angle-closure glaucoma.

SIDE EFFECTS:
Nausea
Orthostatic Hypotension

Dopamine agonists.
Unlike levodopa, dopamine agonists don’t change into dopamine.
Instead, they mimic dopamine effects in your brain.

NCLEX DRUGS:

  • pramipexole (Mirapex)
    ropinirole (Requip)
    apomorphine (Apokyn)

Side effects:
similar to carbidopa-levodopa
includes hallucinations
swelling
sleepiness
hypersexuality
gambling and eating.

NCLEX Review: Neuromuscular Drugs used for Increased in ICP.

Mannitol (Osmitrol)

A loop Diuretic

  • is used to decrease cerebral edema during increased ICP.
  • It is an osmotic diuretic,
  • Electrolytes are also drawn into blood and excreted, so monitor for electrolyte imbalance
  • Hyponatremia is a life threatening side effect, causes seizures and death.
  • Maintain strict I&O.
  • Dobutamine (Dubutrex)
  • Norepinephrine (Levophed)
    – cardiac stimulants used to maintain cerebral perfusion during increased ICP.

Dexamethasone (Decadron)

  • Corticosteroid used to decrease inflammation surrounding a brain tumor
  • Used in medical management of meningitis.
  • Used post craniotomy for cerebral edema
  • Administer IV q 6 hours for 24-72 hours, change to oral a.s.a.p., taper dosage over 5-7 days
  • As with any steroid, fluid retention, increased sugar, lowed immune system
  • Common side effect nasal irritation, cardiovascular edema, hyperglycemia, cataract, oral candidiasis, impaired would healing
  • If using with Mannitol (makes electrolytes be excreted) (by the way the two together are contraindicated according to the book) add potassium-rich foods or supplement to diet.
  • Use good oral hygiene to prevent oral candidiasis

Phenytion (Dilantin)

  • Anticonvulsant – to reduce risk of seizures
  • Especially after supratentorial neurosurgical procedure (prone to seizures)
  • Used to prevent grand mal and complex partial seizures
  • During Ictal phase of seizure give ativan (lorazepam), then start dilantin
  • Life threatening side effects are cardiovascular collapse, Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemias, dermatitis (bullous, exfoliative, or purpuric), Steven-Johnson syndrome.
  • Common side effects gingival hyperplasia (swollen gums), give good mouth care.  Self care pt should brush, floss and massage gums after each meal.

therapeutic level is 10-20 mcg/ml

Do not stop drug abruptly, may precipitate status epilepticus.

Diazepam (Valium)

  • To reduce anxiety

Antiseizure Medications: NCLEX Exam

  • Tegretol
  • Klonopin
  • Keppra
  • Luminal
  • Dilantin-Phenytoin
  • Topamax
  • Depakote

TYLENOL
– Check Direct Bilirubin to determine drug toxicity.

DEMEROL
– Check for Urinary Retention

ASPIRIN Intoxication
– Tinnitus= ear infection

OPIODS
– increase tolerance to pain, decrease perception of pain

highest potency opioids
– morphine, merperidine, methadone

fast acting & high potency opioid
– heroin

lower potency opioid
hydrocodone, codeine

all opioids cause miosis EXCEPT for merperidine.
Because merperidine has muscarinic blocking activity. it actually causes miadriasis
* opioid overdose= Naloxone

Psychiatric Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Psychiatric Pharmacology (Medications)

It will be a guarantee that you will at some point encounter NCLEX questions that challenges your knowledge of Psychiatric Medications/Pharmacology.  For the NCLEX, it is important to simplify the Psychiatric Medications by breaking them down into 4 groups that includes:

  • ♠ ANTIANXIETY/ ANXIOLYTICS
  • ♣ ANTIPSYCHOTICS
  • ♥ ANTIDEPRESSANTS
  • ♦ ANTI-MANIC/ MOOD STABILIZERS

1. Antianxiety/ Anxiolytics

Classes of primary anxiety disorders 
1.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
2.panic disorder
3.OCD
4.Phobias
5. PTSD
6. Acute stress disorder

Benzodiazepines
(mechanism of action)
increase response to GABA

2. Antipsychotics

  • Phenothiazines
  • Non Phenothiazines

3. Antidepressants

  • TCA
  • MAOI
  • SSRI

4. AntiManic/ Mood Stabilizers

  • Lithium

NCLEX Review Psychiatric PharmacologyAntianxiety Drugs

♦ Antianxiety Drugs

Benzodiazepines
(- can also be used with seizures and epilepsy)

Alprazolan (Zanax): Short term only as ↑ dose needed over time

These drugs are used to manage anxiety disorders & for short term treatment of anxiety symptoms.

USE: Panic attacks, anxiety disorders, muscle relaxation, seizures, pre-anesthetic sedation, alcohol withdrawal.

NCLEX MEDS:
alproxolam (Xanax)
lorazepam (Ativan)
diasepam (Valium)
busprione (BuSpar)
hydroxyzine (Vistral)

Librium

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Early: drowsiness
  • orthostatic hypotension
    dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • Parkinsonian Symptoms
    lightheadedness
    headache.

Later: Lethargy, apathy, fatigue, Anger Psychosis (irrational).

Indications for use: Recurrent depression, Psychomotor retardation,
Depression w/no clear cause, Family Hx, Chronic pain, Eneuresis

 ♣ Antipsychotics

NCLEX Drugs : Antipsychotics

  • Chloropromazine HCL (Thorazine)
  • Haloperidol (Haldol)
  • Resperidone (Risperdal)

Side Effects of these drugs would include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Diziness
  • Dry Mouth
  • Parkinsonian Symptoms
  • Tardive Dyskenesia
  • Dystonia

♣ Antidepressants 

– All but MAOI block reuptake of serotonin and sometimes norepi
making more available in synapse (↑ mood, ↑ alert, ↑ concentration);
Can be given once a day, but often has 3-4 wk time to therapeutic
effectiveness

Indications for use: Recurrent depression, Psychomotor retardation,
Depression w/no clear cause, Family Hx, Chronic pain, Eneuresis

SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)

SSRI
S/E: Sexual depression/dysfunction, N/V/D, insomnia, anxiety, dry
mouth, tremor, fatigue, H/A, toxic s/e rare

Remember with SSRI’s: 

Never take w/MAOIs, Liver/renal/CBC test, d/c meds slow

NCLEX Medications:

Fluoxetine (Prozac): ↓ sedation, ↓ S/E
Sertraline (Zoloft): ↓ toxicity in OD, ↓ S/E, ↓ halflife than Prozac
Paroxetine (Paxil): Safest for elderly, Lowest halflife
Fluvoxamine (Luvox) ƒ Citalopram (Celexa)
Escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro)

SNRIs (Serotonin/Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)

Pros: ↓ sex probs, ↓ insomnia, response quicker, anxiolytic like
Cons: ↑ BP, Sedating, Anticholinergic s/e (constipation, sweat)
Effexor (Venlafaxine): S/E: dizziness, migraine, wt gain
Serzone
Trazodone (Desyrel)
Remeron: S/E: somnolence, dizzi, wt gain; Adverse: agranulocytosis,
neutropenis; NX: some respond well only to this

Norepi/dopamine agonist

Facts: Stimulant inhibits reuptake and ↑ release of Norepi/dopa
Cons: ↑ seizure risk ƒ Bupropion HCl (Wellbutrin): No effect on serotonin/ MAO

Tricyclics

NCLEX Medications:

Imapramine (Tofranil), Desipramine (Norpramine, Pertofrane),
Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl),
Protriptyline (Vivactil), Doxepin (Sinequan)

Side Effects:

Anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, constipation, urinary
hesitant/retention, sweating, drowsiness, blurred vision); EPS
Cardiovascular (postural ↓ BP, ↑ HR, heart conduction probs); Glaucoma
worsened, Toxic confusion/psychosis; Wt gain, SZ,
Overdose: 1000-4000 mg can be Fatal

MAOIs

Facts: Monoamine (epi, norepi, sero, dopa) oxidase responsible for
destroying excess/used MAs; Inhibiting enzyme ↑ level of all

NCLEX Medications:

  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
    Isocarboxazide (Marplan)
    Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Remember for the NCLEX:

Some foods contain (tyramine) which if not metabolized in
liver causes ↑↑ HT and CVA; Foods include aged cheese, chicken liver,
beer, red wine, chocolate, cold/sinus meds, diet pills; Avoid certain
restaurants (Chinese); 1o s/s is severe h/a

Side Effects:  ↓BP most critical; Orthostatic ↓BP, dizziness, ↑ appetite
Key: ↑ BP is toxic effect (wrong food); ↓ BP is med caused S/E

Antimanic Drugs 

Lithium***
Used in psychiatric disorders non-responsive to other meds;
Blood level of 0.1-1.5 key as toxic death possible. Higher only
w/psychosis; Must maintain adequate salt in diet (consistent level,
not too ↑ or ↓)
Indications: Acute Mania, Bipolar prophylaxis

Possible use:

Bulimia, Alcohol abuse, Schizoaffective (mania or
depression with schizo like delusions/hallucinations/etc)

Side Effects:

Major risk of hypothyroidism and urine concentration probs;
Parkinson like, cog wheeling, sluggish, forgetful; Chronic N/V/D so
take w/food; Wt gain, Polydypsia, Polyuria, Allergic rash w/capsules

Remember: Never take with diuretics or Anticholinergic meds

Endocrine Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Endocrine Pharmacology (Medications)

NCLEX Review on the Endocrine System: HYPERTHYROIDISM

NCLEX Review on the Endocrine System: HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

♠ Growth Hormones

Drugs:
Somatropin (Genotropin)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Causes skin lesions

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES

– Enhances the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
– causes vasoconstriction
– promotes an anti diuretic effect.
– Used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS

– Desmopressin
– Vasopressin (pitressin)

SIDE EFFECTS:

– water intoxication
– hyponatremia
– abdominal cramps
– heaadachesl
– nausea
– hypertension

THYROID GLAND

Thyroid Hormones

  • – Levothyroxine T4
  • – Levothroid
  • – Synthroid

Anti-thyroid Drugs

  • – Iodine
  • – Iodine Iodide
  • – Prophythioracil (PTU)

PARATHYROID GLAND  (Anti-hypercalcemic Drugs)

Drugs:
– Calcitrol (Rocatrol)
– Calcium Carbonate
– Calcium Citrate

ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS 
(INSULIN DRUGS)

Insulin
– reduces the serum glucose level by increasing glucose transport into cells.

Types:
Rapid-Acting
Intermediate acting
Long-Acting

ORAL HYPOGLYCEMICS

– Increases the serum calcium levels, causing a decrease in serum
phosphate levels.

Cardiac Pharmacology

Cardiac System NCLEX Review

Urinary System NCLEX Review (By: AllNursingNotes)

Below shows the (Cardiac Drug Categories)

that correlates to each of the individual initials.

NCLEX Review on Cardiac Pharmacology

As you have learned in Nursing School, beta adrenergic blockers are drugs that help lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output. Beta Blockers are an important set of drugs to know for the NCLEX. Sometimes, beta blockers are also used to treat migraine headaches an other vascular headaches. Beta blockers are also used to treat glaucoma and used to prevent myocardial infarctions. Try to remember that what beta blockers do is they act by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response. For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

Potential side effects of beta blocker that is necessary to know for the NCLEX would include: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and some of the symptoms may MASK HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS.

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS: Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker. Monitor the client for signs of edema. The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi. When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protien, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.

Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever. It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

Cardiac Glycosides
– increases the force of contraction.
– a positive inotropic effects

ACE Inhibitor
– prevents vasoconstriction by blocking conversion of Angiotensin 1 to Angiotensin 2.
– Used to treat Hypertension
– Avoid using potassium suplemments

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Persistent Coughing
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Headache

NCLEX Review on Hypertension

NCLEX Review Pharmacology: Corticosteroids and Antihistamines

Corticosteroids:

  • Triamcinoslone
  • Corticosteroid
  • allergy & ASTHMA
  • Nasocort spray, Amcort

Side Effect: 

Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym

Mometasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasonex
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym

Fluticasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flonase
Side Effects:

Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion

Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Beclovent, Beconase

Side Effects:

  • Dysphonia, hoarseness
  • oropharyngeal fungal infec
  • headache
  • sore throart
  • Dyspepsia

Triamcinoslone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasocort spray, Amcort

Side Effects:

  • Dysphonia, hoarseness
    oropharyngeal fungal infec
    headache
    sore throart
    nasal congestion,cold sym

Antihistamine

Loratadine (Claritin)
antihistamine
Claritin
Side Effects:

  • drowsiness

Remember:
management of seasonal rhinitis
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
take on empty stomach, 1 hr b4 or 2 hrs after meals
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
antihistamine
Side Effects:

  • Drowsiness

nurse. consd.:
management of rhinitis, allergy symptoms, chronic idiopathic urticaria
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
Cetirizine HCI (Zyrtec)
Antihistamine

Side Effects:

  • drowsiness, fatique, dry mouth

Relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis
relief of perennial allergic rhinitis caused by molds, animal dander, and other allergens
avoid alcohol

Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)
antihistamine
Side Effects:

  • drowsiness, dry mouth

Remember for the NCLEX:
tmt of pruritus, pre-op anxiety, post-op nausea and vomiting, to potentiate opioid analgesics, sedation
-avoid use of alchohol, other CNS depressants
-teach pt. dizziness/drowsiness may occur, use caution in potentially hazardous activities

NCLEX Review Respiratory Pharmacology

Respiratory Pharmacology

Bronchodilators
-Reverses bronchoconstriction
– opens air passages

can be: Adrenergics, Xanthines, Anticholinergic

Antitussives

– suppresses the cough reflex.
– inhibits the cough reflex

Drugs: Opiod, Codiene, hydrobromide (Robitussin)

ANTITUSSIVES

These drugs depress cough center in medulla or by anesthetizing
stretch receptors in respiratory tract.

USE: to relieve a nonproductive cough.

MEDS: Codeine Sulfate (narcotic based), Bensonatate (Tessalon Perles),
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin)

Antihistamines

– Blocks the action of Histamine

Opiod Antagonists

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

Antiemetics
These drugs treat nausea & vomiting. Inhibits the CTZ and the brain’s neurotransmitters.
USE: Treat nausea & vomiting.

MED: prochloperazine HCL (Compazine)
promethazine HCL (Phenergan)

Antacids

ANTACIDS These drugs neutralize or reduce acidity.

USE: GERD & heartburn.

MED: aluminum hydroxide gel (Amphojel -constipate)
Magnesia (Milk of Magnesia -diarrhea) magaldrate (Riopan).
ANTACIDS A/R: diarrhea, constipation.

S/I: DO NOT GIVE with any other drugs or within 2 hours of taking other drugs. 1-2 hours after meals.

Histamine 2 Antagonists

USE: duodenal ulcer, gastric hyper-secretory conditions, GERD.

MED: All end in “dine”. cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). HISTAMINE2 ANTAGONISTS A/R: Dizziness, somnolence (sleepy) headache.

MED: All end in “dine”). cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). HISTAMINE2 ANTAGONISTS S/I: Do not give with any other drugs or within 2 hours of taking other drugs. 1-2 hours after meals.

MED: All end in “dine”). cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS These drugs supress enzyme called AT pase (without ATpase – do not have gastric secretions).

USE: hypyloric bacteria (H Pyloric).

MED: esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium), omeprazole (Prilosec), Pantoprazole sodium (Protonix). PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS A/R: Headache, Nausea, Diarrhea.

MED: esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium), omeprazole (Prilosec), Pantoprazole sodium (Protonix). ANTICHOLINERGICS These drugs decrease amount of acid secretion (dry out).

USE: Peptic ulcer.

MED: propantheline (Pro-Banthine), glycopyrrolate (Robinul) ANTICHOLINERGICS A/R: dry mouth, blurred vision.

S/I Give ice.

MED: propantheline (Pro-Banthine), glycopyrrolate (Robinul)

ANTIDIARRHEAL

These drugs decrease intestinal peristalsis.

USE: Diarrhea

MED: diphenozylate with atropine (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium A-D) ANTIDIARRHEAL A/R: abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting & constipation. NOTE: atropine based = opioids feeling and is habit forming.

MED: diphenozylate with atropine (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium A-D) ANTIDIARRHEAL S/I: give after every episode of diarrhea.

NCLEX Review Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on Hiatal Hernia

Antiemetics
– helps alleviate nausea and vomiting.

  • Drugs:
    Ondansetron (Zofran)
    Prochlorperazine (Compazine)

Antacids
– provide protection coating on the stomach lining.
– helps neutralize gastric acid.

  • Drugs:
    – Aluminum Hydroxide Gel (Amphojel)
    – Aluminum/Magnesium Hydroxide (Maalox)
    – Ranitidine (Zantac)

Side Effects:
Constipation
Diarrhea
Alkalosis

Anticholinergics
– helps alleviate pain from peptic ulcer

  • Drugs:
    Atropine Sulfate
    Dicyclomine (Bentyl)
    Glycopyrrolate (Robinul)

Side Effects:
– Dry Mouth (decrease salivation)
– Constipation (decrease persitalsis)
– Urinary Retention

Antisecretory Agents (H2 Antagonists and PPI’s)

– inhibits gastric acid secretion

H2 Antagonists
– Famotidine (Pepcid)
– Ranitidine (Zantac)
– Cimetidine (Tagament)

Proton Pump Inhibitor
– Omeprazole (Prilosec)
– Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
– esomeprazole (Nexium)

Side Effects:
– Decrease in bone density with long term use.

Antidiahrreals
– helps alleviate diarrhea
– promote formation of stools

Drugs:
– Bismuth Subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol)

Side Effects:
Constipation
Urinary Retention

Laxatives/ Cathartics
– helps alleviate or prevent constipation
– promotes evacuation of stools.
– Oral or rectal

Fecal Softeners
– Docusate Sodium (Colace)

Bulk Forming Laxatives
– psyllium (Metamucil)

Colon Irritants
– Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)

Saline Cathartics
– increases osmotic pressure within intestine
– Magnesium Hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)

Side Effects:
Dependency of Use

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology

Urinary Pharmacology

NCLEX Review: Urinary Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on the Diseases of the Urinary System

NCLEX Review on Urilothiasis

Thiazide Diuretics
– used for Hypertension
– Edema
– Heart Failure

DRUGS:
Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
Hydrochlorothiazide (HyroDIURIL)

Side Effects:
Orthostatic Hypotension
Hypokalemia
Hypoglycemia
Diziness
Heaches

Loop Diuretics

DRUGS:
Furosemide (Lasix)
Bumetanide (Bumex)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Metabolic Alkalosis

* Monitor Digoxin Levels if patient is taking Digoxin.

Osmotic Diuretics

Drugs; Mannitol
Used for: Cerebral Edema

Side Effects:

Potassium Sparing Diuretics

Drugs: Spironolactone (Aldactone)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Hyperkalemia
Increased BUN Levels
Nausea & Vomiting
Anorexia
Diarrhea

* Monitor for signs of Hyperkalemia
– Confusion
– Hyperexcitability
– muscle weakness
– flaccid paralysis

NCLEX Review Hematological Pharmacology

Hematological Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on Anemia

NCLEX Review on Polycythemia Vera

NCLEX Review on Hematology Medications

– prevents formation of clots by inhibiting factors in the clotting.
– used for DVT, PE, and atrial fibrillation

– Enoxaparin sodium  (Lovenox)
– Warfarin Sodium (Coumadin)

THROMBOLYTICS

– activates the plasminogen, leads its conversion to plasma

– Streptokinase (Streptase)
– Alteplase (Activase)

ANTIPLATELET DRUGS

Anticoagulants

Heparin
anticoagulant
s.e.: hemorrhage
tissue irritation/pain w/injection
anemia
thrombocytopenia
fever
N.C.: maintain patency of IV-(heparin flush in low doses)
-therapeutic PPT @1.5-2.5 X the control w/out signs of hemorrhage

-antidote: protamine sulfate w/in 30 min
-hemorrhage: bleeding gums, nose, unusual, black tarry stools, hematuria, fall in hemacrit or bl. pressure, guaiac-positive stools
-avoid ASA & NSAIDs (watch for addition in OTC)
-wear med. info tag
RX- preg C

Warfarin (Coumadin)
AnticoagulantAn
s.e.: hemorrhage
Diarrhea, Rash, Fever
N.C.: mgmt of pulmonary emboli, deep-vein thrombosis, MI, atrial dysrhythmias, postcardiac valve replacement

-antidote: vit. K, whole bl, plasma
-avoid foods high in Vit K, green leafy vegs.
-do not interchange brands, potencies may not be equivalent
-avoid ASA & NSAIDS + OTC meds that contain them

NCLEX Review Antibiotics Pharmacology

Anti-Infective Pharmacology

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin (Amikin, Garamycin, Tobrax)
Anti-infective
s.e.:do not use during preg. may cause bilateral congenital deafness,
Ototoxicity cranial nerve VIII
Nephrotoxicity
Allegric reactions: fever, diff. breathing, rash
Remember for the NCLEX:

  • -monitor for superinfection(diarrhea, URI, coated tongue)
  • -immediately report hearing or balance problems
  • -encourage fluids 8-10 glasses daily

Antifungals: Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
Anti-infective
s.e.: bl, kidney, heart,liver abnormalities
GI upset, Hypokalemia-induced muscle pain, CNS disturbances, inefficient hearing, skin irritation and thrombosis if IV infiltrates
N.C.: trmt of histoplasmosis, skin infections, septicemia, meningitis in HIV pts
-monitor vital signs, report fever or change in function, especially NS
-check for hypokalemia
-meticulous care and observation of injection site
-benefits balanced agst serious
preg B

Antifungals: Fluconazole (Diflucan)
s.e.: Nausea, Diarrhea, Headache, Abd. pain, taste distortion
N.C.: trmt of vaginal, esophageal, or systemic candidiasis
-prothrombin time is increased after warfarin usage
-take missed dose asap, but do not double dose
-reduces metabolism of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide, so bl. glucose levels shoud be monitored in diabetics
-preg C

Anti-malarials: Hydrozychloroquine (Plaquenil)
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis
-peak 1-2 hrs
-take at same time ea day to maintain bl levels
-for malaria, prophylaxis should be started 2 wks b4 exposure and for 4-6 wks after leaving exposure area
preg C

Anti-malarials:
Quinine Sulfate
Anti-infective
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria,nocturnal leg cramps
-peak 1-3 hrs
-take same time ea day to maintain bl. levels
-avoid OTC cold meds, tonic water
-preg X

Anti-protozoals: Metronidazole (Flagyl, Flagyl ER)
anti-infective
CNS symptoms, abd cramps, metallic taste,
N.C.: trtmt of wide variety of inf.including trichomoniasis and giardiasis
=IV:immediate onset, PO-pk 1-2 hrs
=dark-reddish brown urine
=avoid hazardous activities
=trtmt in both partners for trichomoniasis
=do not drink alcohol in any form, during and 48 hrs after use, disulfiram-like reaction can occur
preg B

Anti-tuberculars: Isoniazid (INH)
anti-infective
s.e.: peripheral neuropathy, liver damage
N.C.: prevention and trtmt of TB
=PO/Im:onset rapid, pk 1-2 hrs, dur: up to 24 hrs
=contact MD if signs of hepatitis:yellow eyes or skin, NV, anorexia, dark urine, unusual tiredness, or weakness
-contact MD if signs of peripheral neuropathy: numbness, tingling or weakness
preg C

Anti-virals: Acyclovir (Zovirax)
anti-infective
s.e.: headache, bl. dyscrasias
N.C: trmt of herpes, varicella
=IV: onset & peak immediate
=PO: absorbed minimally, onset unknown, pk 1-1/2 hrs
=do not break, crush or chew
=PO: take w/out regard to meals w/full glass water
=if does missed take asap, up to 1 hr b4 next does
=contact MD if sore throat, fever and fatique, could be signs of superinfection
preg B

Anti-viral: Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
anti-infective
s.e.: NV
N.C:-used as prophylaxis in adults for influenza, including Avian Bird Flu
-treats uncomplicated acute flu symptoms in pts that are symptomatic for 2 days or less
-should not be used as substitute for flu vaccine
-may be taken w/out regard for meals
preg C

Anti-virals: Valacyclovir HCI
(Valtrex)
anti-infective
NV, abd. cramps, headache
N.C: trtmt genital herpes
=treats Herpes Zoster(shingles)
=treats Herpes labialis (cold sores)
=pts shoudl drink plenty of fluids during trtmt
=avoid sexual ontact when lesions are visible
=use with caution in preg & nursing mothers
preg B

Anti-Viral: Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir
anti-infective
s.e.: fever, headache, malaise, NVD, Dizziness, insomnia, dyspepsia, anorexia, rash
N.C: mgmt of HIV inf. & prevention of HIV following needlestick
-GI upset and insomnia resolve after 3-4 wks
-PO: pk 1/2-1 1/2 hrs
preg C

Cephalosporins, 1st generation :
Cefadroxil (Duricef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media, tonsillitis & UTIs
=peak 1- 1 1/2 hrs, dur: 12-24 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephalexin (Keflex, Keflet)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media,
=IM:peak 1 hrs, dur: 6-12 hrs;
IV: pk 5 min, dur 4-6 hrs
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen.
Cephapirin (Cefadyl)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of lower respiratory tract,skin infections, endocarditis, bacterial peritonitis
=peak 30 min, dur: 4-6 hrs; up to 12 w/decreased urinary ouput
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephradine (Velosef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of serious respiratory tract, and skin infections, otitis media,& UTIs
=peak 1- 2 hrs, dur: usually 6 but up to 12 hrs w/decreased renal function
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins 2nd gen:
Cefaclor (Ceclor, Ceclor CD)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract,bone, joint and skin infections, otitis media,
=peak 1/2- hrs,extended release pk 1 1/2-2 1/2 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins 2nd. gen:
Cefamandole (Mandol)
anti-infectives.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, peritonitis, septicemia, surgical prophylaxis
=peak 1/2-1 hrs
IV or IM
-avoid alcohol
preg B

NCLEX Review Opiods and Opiod Analgesic Pharmacology

Opiod Analgesic

Opioid Analgesic

  1. Methadone
  2. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
  3. Meperidine
  4. Codeine
  5. Opioid Analgesic
  6. Morphine
    (MS Contin)

Side Effect:

  • Drowsiness, sedation
    nausea, vomiting, anorexia
    Respiratory depression
    constipation, cramps
    orthostatic hypotension
    confusion, headache

 

Analgesic

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Analgesics-nonopioid
s.e.: anemia (long-term use)
Liver and kidney failure (high doses)

Remember:
-take crushed or whole w/ full glass of water
-can give / food or milk to decrease GI upset
-signs of chronic poisoning: rapid, weak pulse, dyspnea, cold, clammy extremities
-signs of chronic overdose; bleeding, bruising, malaise, fever, sore throat
Aspirin
Analgesics- nonopioid
s.e: nausea, vomiting, rash

Remember:

– long-term use: liver damage, dark urine, clay-colored stools
-arthritis, give 30 min b4 exercise, may take 2 wks b4 full effect is felt
-discard tabs if vinergar-like smell
-do not give to children under 18-Reyes syndrome
OTC: preg C

Celecoxib (Celebrex)
analgesics-nonopioid
s.e: Fatique, anxiety, depression, nervousness, NV, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation
-can take w/out meals
-do not take if allergic to sulfonamides, aspirin or NSAIDs
-Rx: preg C for 1st & 2nd trimester
Preg D for 3rd trimester

Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)
analgesic-nonopioid
s.e.: headache, Nausea, anorexia, GI bleeding, blood dyscrasias
-contact clinician if ringing or roaring in ears, =toxicity
-if changes in urinary pattern, increase wgt, edema, increased, pain in joints, fever, bl in urine=may indicate kidney damage
-use sunscreen for photosensitivity
-avoid use w/ ASA. NSAIDs, and alcohol,

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Cardiac System NCLEX Review

[youtube http://youtu.be/Fw_HBbglaXA w=400&h=300]

Urinary System NCLEX Review (By: AllNursingNotes)

Below shows the (Cardiac Drug Categories)

that correlates to each of the individual initials.

NCLEX Review on Cardiac Pharmacology

As you have learned in Nursing School, beta adrenergic blockers are drugs that help lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.  Beta Blockers are an important set of drugs to know for the NCLEX.  Sometimes, beta blockers are also used to treat migraine headaches an other vascular headaches.  Beta blockers are also used to treat glaucoma and used to prevent myocardial infarctions.  Try to remember that what beta blockers do is they act by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.  For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

Potential side effects of beta blocker that is necessary to know for the NCLEX would include: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and some of the symptoms may MASK HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS.

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS: Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker.  Monitor the client for signs of edema.  The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi.  When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protien, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.

Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever.  It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

Urinary System NCLEX Review

[youtube http://youtu.be/CpdRW6a5bNg w=400&h=300]

Urinary System NCLEX Review (By: AllNursingNotes)

Urinary Calculi/ Urilithiasis

URINARY CALCULI is also called urilothiasis or KIDNEY STONES, and it can results from anything from immobility, cancer, increased intake of Vitamin D, or an over-activity of the Parathyroid gland.

Kidney stones is made up of:

  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus
  • oxalate.

– High urine acidity or alkalinity contributes to stone formation.
SYMPTOMS (Urinary Calculi)

  • Flank pain
  • fever
  • nausea and vomiting
  • changes in the urinary output.

*** There will be an increase in RBC’s, WBC’s and bacteria.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS for urinary calculi would include x-ray, blood tests and a 24 hour urine test.

INTERVENTIONS:

Non Surgical Management:

  Incudes the use of laser to break the stone fragments

 (Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL).

  • patient is given a local anesthetic .
  • pt. is placed in a water bath or on a soft cushion.
  • shock waves are transmitted through the stones inside the kidney.
  • shock waves cause the calculi to break up into smaller pieces.
–  ♦It is very important to strain the urine after the ESWL Procedure.
  • * Encourage fluid intake after the procedure.
  • * Assess for any hemorrhage

Discharge Teaching (DIET) *Know for NCLEX:

If Uric Acid Stone:

  • Alkaline Ash & Low Purine Diet (limit wine, cheese & meat)
  • Give Allopurinol as prescribed

If Calcium Stone:

  • Calium Restricted Diet (Limit Dairy Foods)

Surgical Interventions:
– Uretherolithotomy

– Nephrolithotomy

  • Removal of  renal calculi using a nephroscope.

 

POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

– A cyst develops in the nephron (kidneys)
– It is an inherited disease of the kidneys.

  • IN THE DOMINANT FORM- ONLY FEW NEPHRONS HAVE CYSTS.
  • IN THE RECESSIVE FORM-100% OF NEPHRONS HAVE CYSTS FROM BIRTH.

– Cysts in kidneys would look like a cluster of grapes
– Patients would have hypertension. (Due to Renin Angiotensin System)

MANIFESTATIONS IN THE PATIENT:

  • PAIN IS THE FIRST MANIFESTATION
  • FLANK PAIN IS DULL, SHARP OR INTERMITTENT

DULL ACHING PAIN- is caused by increase kidney size, from infection from the cyst.
SHARP INTERMITTENT PAIN- is when a cyst is rupture or when a stone is present.

BERRY ANEURYSM
– can occur (bleeding into brain from ruptured intracranial vascular cysts)
– causes severe headaches, with or without vision changes (pay extra attention
to patients with severe headaches, since it can be a sign of a ruptured cyst).

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:
– renal sonogrophy
– computed tomography
– MRI

INTERVENTIONS:

  • BE VERY CAUTIOUS IN USING NSAIDS, BECAUSE IT CAN CAUSE BLEEDING
  • ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AND DIURETIC AGENTS (ACE INHIBITOR, CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER, BETA BLOCKER)
  • IS USED FOR HYPERTENSION.

If during in the NCLEX exam, it talks about a sharp pain, followed by blood in the urine= it usually is a ruptured cyst.

♣ Berry Aneurysm= main symptom is severe headaches.

♦ Urinanalysis in patients with PKD:

  • Protienuria
  • Hematuria
  • Bacteremia

Protienuria in pt. indicates PKD disease progression.

NSAIDS should be avaoided= it can cause bleeding in pts.

PAIN from PKD- apply dry heat to the abdomen or flank area.

ACE Inhibitors– the best medication to control hypertension (PKD).

 

 

Glomerulonephritis

  • A NON BACTERIAL INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY’S GLUMEROLUS.
  • Usually a result of an antigen antibody response to a beta hemolytic streptococci
  • (this means that the patient usually had strep throat 2-3 weeks prior).
  • SERUM CREATININE LEVEL
  • BLOOD UREA NITROGEN BUN

ASSESSMENT
– Monitor the patient for dark color, cloudy appearance and foul odor urine.
– WBC blood count will be above 10,000/ mm3
– Blood culture will be positive for presence of bacteria.
– Azotemia= presence of nitrogenous waste products in the blood.

Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
– a common intraabdominal tumors of the childhood.
– usually associated with genitourinary anomalies.

Assessment:
– patient will have a swelling or mass within the abdomen.
– the patient will have hypertension, hematuria, pallor and anorexia

NEVER AND DO NOT palpate the abdomen of the patient.

Urine Culture and Sensitiviy

CREATININE CLEARANCE TEST

  1. CREATININE CLEARANCE TEST, EVALUATES HOW WELL THE KIDNEYS REMOVE CREATININE
  2. BLOOD IS DRAWN AFTER TAKING THE URINE SAMPLE.

Bladder Ultrasonography
Intravenous Pyelography

  • AN X RAY PROCEDURE
  • USES A RADIOPAQUE DYE
  • ASSESS FOR ALLERGIES

Renal Angiography
– an IV injection of radiopaque dye is inserted into the renal artery

  • – INJECTION OF A RADIOPAQUE DYE
  • – OBTAIN INFORMED CONSENT.
  • – ASSESS FOR ALLERGIES
  • – WITHOLD FOOD AFTER MIDNIGHT
  • – INFORM PT. ABOUT THROAT IRRITATION

Uric Acid Test

  • URIC ACID TEST IS A 24 HR. URINE COLLECTION TO DIAGNOSE FOR GOUT.

Interventions:

  • Manage Pain- (give analgesics)
  • Administer Antibiotics
  • Increase the patients’s fluid intake (2-3 L/day)

Meningitis NCLEX Review

[youtube http://youtu.be/oEGPcawn5KM w=400&h=300]

Meningitis  (By: AllNursingNotes)

Lets take a quick look at Meningitis and what we need to know for the NCLEX.

Meningitis is simply:

– an inflammation of the meninges within the brain and spinal cord.

  • * Usually caused by Niesseria meningitidis, Group B Strep and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Again, the two main culprit for Meningitis are

  1. Niesseria meningitidis
  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae

Assessment findings on the patient:

  • * Positive Brudzinski’s Sign

– There is some neck stiffness that causes a patient’s hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed

  • * Positive Kernig’s Sign

– With the patient lying flat, if the patient flexes a hip 90 degrees, and then attempts to extend the lower leg at the knee. Pain on extension is a positive sign.

  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise

Diagnostic Evaluation:

  • Lumbar Puncture
  • Chest X rays

Bells Palsy NCLEX Review

[youtube http://youtu.be/lsoWICU6bSQ w=400&h=300]

A quick review of  Bells Palsy for the NCLEX (By: AllNursingNotes)

What is Bells Palsy?

We can describe Bells Palsy as a temporary facial paralysis that occurs with damage to the nerve that controls movement of the facial muscle.

What can be the SYMPTOMS

  • An onset of a mild paralysis on one side of your face
  • (the patient may have a difficult time smiling)
  • Facial drooping
  • Pain around the jaw
  • Headache
  • A decrease in ability to taste

Polycythemia Vera NCLEX Review

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A quick review of Polycythemia Vera  (By: AllNursingNotes)

What is Polycythemia Vera?

Polycythemia Vera is a blood disorder that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells (more primarily red blood cells).

What are the SYMPTOMS?

Here are some of the symptoms in the patient as the disease progresses:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Numbness, tingling, burning
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Itchiness

With Polycythemia Vera, there is a mutation in the bone marrow cell that causes a problems with the blood cell production.   In a patient with polycythemia vera, the mechanism your body uses to control the production of blood cells becomes impaired, and your bone marrow makes too many of some blood cells.

Therefore the patients can have complications such as:

  • Blood clots. Polycythemia vera causes your blood to be thicker than normal, which can slow the rate of blood flow through your veins and arteries. Increased blood thickness and decreased blood flow, as well as abnormalities in your platelets, increase your risk of blood clots.

Blood clots can cause

  1. a stroke
  2. a heart attack
  3. blockage of an artery in your lungs (pulmonary embolism)
  4. vein deep within a muscle (deep vein thrombosis).
  • Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). Your spleen helps your body fight infection and filter unwanted material, such as old or damaged blood cells.  The increased number of blood cells caused by polycythemia vera makes your spleen work harder than normal, which causes it to enlarge.

How do we diagnose this patient?

We would usually do a Blood test for this patient:

The Blood Test would usually show:

INCREASE  ↑

  • An increase in the number of red blood cells
  • Elevated hematocrit measurement
  • Elevated levels of hemoglobin the iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen.

DECREASE ↓

  • Very low levels of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce new red blood cells.

TREATMENTS:

Phlebotomy

When treating this patient with this method, we need to be careful and withdraw only about 250 to 500 cc of blood daily or every other day until a hematocrit between 0.4 and 0.45 (40% and 45%) is obtained.

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