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Eye and Ear Disorders

Glaucoma

Glaucoma: there is an increased of intraocular pressure in the eye.

There are two types:

  1. Open Angle Glaucoma or “Primary” Glaucoma
  2. Primary Angle Glaucoma.

Open angle glaucoma is slow in onset and chronic, while the primary angle glaucoma needs immediate treatment.

Open Angle Glaucoma

Bilateral

Acute Angle-closure Glaucoma

Unilateral

TREATMENT

Beta Adrenergic Blockers

Cholinergic Agents (Pilocarpine)

AVOID ANTICHOLINERGICS (Atropine)

Cataracts

Complete or partial opacity of the eye lens.

Types of Cataracts:

Senile: associates with aging

Traumatic: associates with injury

Secondary: Those that followed after othe reye diseases.

Assessment:

Painless

Decrease in visual acuity

Remember:

If there is severe pain, its a sign of increased occular pressure (call physician)

Cataract Surgery:

Removal of the opacified lens.

DO NOT ADMINISTER MORPHINE (causes miosis)

Detachment of Retina

Usually no pain

Person feel like there is a curtain or shadow

Person might complain of floating spots.

Opthalmic, otic and nasal agents treat, prevent and inhibit

conditions affecting the eyes, ears and the nose.

Miotics causes the pupit to contract (constrict)

Miotics include:

Carbachol (intraocular) (Miostat)

Pilocarpine (Piloptic)

Conditions treated with miotics includes:

Primary Open- Angle glacauma

Miotics are also administered to create pupillary miosis (contraction) during ocular surgery

Mydriatics

Mydriatics dilate the pupil.

Sometimes the pupil must be dilated during treatment to prevent adhesion of the pupils.

Mydriatics includes:

  • Atropine Sulfate
  • Cyclopentolate hydrochloride (mydrilate)
  • Epinephrine hydrochloride (glaucon

Conditions used treated with mydriatics

Open angle glacauma

Opthalmic Vasoconstricors

constrict the blood vessels of the pupil in the eyes

  • Naphazoline Hydrochloride (Allerest)
  • Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride (Visine)

Conditions treated with opthalmic vasoconstricors

Allergies

Eye irritations

EAR DISORDERS

Otitis Media

Infection of the middle ear.

Infants and children is common (eustachian tube is shorter)

Assessment

Pain from pressure

Fever

MEDICATIONS

Antypyretic

Analgesic

Menierre’s Disease

Ear disease that affects the vestibular and semicircular canals.

Produces severe vertigo.

ASSESSMENT:

Headache

Vertigo

Nausea

Tinnitis

DIAGNOSTICS

Auditory Test

Weber Test

TREATMENT:

Antihistamine

Otics are used and administered to treat conditions of the ear.

Examples:

Carbamide Peroxide (Murine Ear)

Boric Acid Solution (Ear dry)

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