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NCLEX Review & Nursing School

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Seizures

– abnormal chaotic electrical discharge within the neuron system of the brain.

Types of Seizures:

  • GENERALIZED SEIZURES (TONIC CLONIC, ABSENT SEIZURES)
  • PARTIAL SEIZURES (SIMPLE, COMPLEX)

Assessment:

  • Unconsciousness, convulsions, muscle rigidity
  • Brief loss of consciousness
  • Sporadic (isolated), jerking movements
  • Repetitive, jerking movements
  • Muscle stiffness, rigidity
  • Loss of muscle tone

Interventions: (what to remember for the NCLEX)

*Never use a tongue blade.  Do not restrain the patient.

*Pad the siderails.

Dilantin (Phenytoin): (Anticonvulsant Drug)

– Side Effects includes: Ataxia, slurred speech, blurred vision, mental confusion.

– DO NOT WITHDRAW SUDDENLY (SEIZURES CAN OCCUR).

– Administer this drug with Nornal Saline

– Therapeutic Level: 10- 20 mcg/ ml.

– When taking Dilantin, teach pt. to have good dental hygiene (can cause gingival hyperplasia)

Phenobarbital (Barbituate)

– Side Effects:

  • Lethargy
  • Drowsiness
  • Respiratory depression
  • Hypotension

  *No alcohol use while using the drug.

  * Phenobarbital can be habit forming.

Tegretol (Carbamazepine)

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