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NCLEX Review & Nursing School

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Remember: Knowing the Lab Values by heart can lead to success in the NCLEX Exam.

Electrolytes (Know this by heart)

  • Sodium (135-145 meq/L)
  • Potassium (3.5- 5 meq/L)
  • Calcium (8.6- 10 mg/dL)
  • Magnesium (1.6- 2.6 mg/dL)

Blood Values

  • RBC- (4.5- 5.0 Million)
  • WBC- (5,000- 10,000)
  • Platelets (200,000- 400,000)
  • Hgb (12- 18 gms)
  • Hct- (42% – 50%)

ABG Values

  • HCO3 (24- 26)
  • CO2 (35-45)
  • PaO2 (80%- 100)
  • SaO2 ( >95%)

Chemistry Values

  • Glucose (70- 110 mg/dL)
  • BUN ( 7-22 mg/dl)
  • Serum Creatinine (0.6- 1.35 mg/dl)
  • Specific Gravity (1.010- 1.030)
  • Uric Acid (3.5- 7.5)

Back to the electrolytes.

There are different organs and systems that help regulate the electrolytes within our body system.  These regulators includes the (kidneys, the endocrine system and the GI System).

Sodium

  • Hyponatremia (less than 135 meq/L)
  • – an increase in sodium excretion, causing headache, nausea, increased renal output,
  • Hypernatremia
  • – patient would be thirsty, decreased urinary output and dry and flushed skin.

Pottasium

  • Hypokalemia:
  • – Can be caused by excessive use of med. such as diuretic.
  • Symptoms for hypokalemia would be: (confusion, nausea and vomiting, weak pulse)
  • Lethargy, EKG would show a depressed ST segment and inverted T wave.

Hyperkalemia:

  • Can be due to Addison’s Disease
  • Can be due to pottasium sparing diuretics

Remember for NCLEX: When giving PO potassium, give with juice to help with bitter taste.

– Always use a controller when giving potassium, it can cause arrythmias.

Sodium:

Hyponatremia:

  • can be caused by diuretics, renal disease, HYPERGLYCEMIA, CHF.
  • Symptoms includes rapid pulse, muscle weaknes, dry skin, headaches.

Hypernatremia

  • Can be due to Cushing’s Syndrome
  • Symptoms include diminished cardiac output.

Chloride

– coincides with sodium

Calcium

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