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– OCCURS WHEN THERE IS LOWER THAN NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN IN THE BODY.
– THERE IS A DECREASE NUMBER OF RBC’S.

– Due to this, there will be a low amount of oxygen circulation within the body.

General symptoms of anemia:
– weakness
– fatigue,
– pale skin
– brittled nails.

There are several types of anemia:

– Sickle Cell Anemia
– Pernicious Anemia
– Aplastic Anemia
– Iron Deficiency Anemia

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

IT IS AN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE GENETIC DISORDER THAT IS A RESULT OF AN ABNORMAL SHAPE OF THE RBC’S (SICKLE CELLS).

TYPES OF SICKLE CELL CRISIS:
VASO OCCLUSIVE CRISIS

  • PAINFUL SWELLING IN EXTREMITIES
  • FEVER
  • ENGORGED TISSUES

– this is caused by stasis of the blood due to clumping.

 

SPLENIC SEQUESTRATION
– pooling and clamping of blood within the spleen.

Assessment:

  • LOW HEMATOCRIT
  • HYPOVOLEMIA
  • REDUCED BP
  • SHOCK

 

APLASTIC CRISIS
– diminished production and increased destruction of RBC’s

Assessment:

  • ANEMIA
  • PALLOR

Treatment:

  • Administration of hemopoetic growth factor to correct anemia.
  • Erythropoetin, Epoeitin Alfa (SC or IV)

 

 

PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

  • IT IS CAUSED BY THE INABILITY OF THE BODY TO ABSORB VITAMIN B12, WHICH CAN BE A RESULT FORM A DEFICIENCY OF INTRINSIC FACTOR, WHICH IS NECESSARY FOR THE ABSORPTION OF B12 FROM THE INTESTINES.

Diagnostics: ♣ SCHILLING TEST is used to diagnose pernicious anemia.
Assessment:

APLASTIC ANEMIA

  • IT IS A DEFICIENCY OF THE CIRCULATING ERYTHROCYTES AS A RESULTS IN THE COMPLICATIONS WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF RBC’S WITHIN THE BONE MARROW.

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
– When giving oral iron med. administer to child w/ a straw. (Could stain the teeth)

♣ ♥ ♦ REMEMBER FOR THE NCLEX
– Take Iron with Orange Juice (Helps it absorb better).
– Polycythemia Vera patients can have stroke symptoms

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