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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease occurs when prolonged disease or injury has made the lungs less capable of meeting the body’s oxygen needs.  COPD includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma.

Chronic Bronchitis: When we talk about bronchitis, we are talking about an inflammation of the bronchi, that can lead to chronic lung infections.  These infections are characterized by productive cough and dyspnea.


  • pursed lips breathing
  • Barrel Chest

Notes for NCLEX:

  • Do not give the patient more than 2 L of oxygen this will decrease respirations, because the respiratory center has adjusted to a high level of CO2




Emphysema is the irreversable overdistention of the airspaces of the lungs which results in destruction of the alveolar walls.  Clients with emphysema are also called “pink puffer” or “blue bloaters”





Asthma is the most common respiratory condition of childhood.

Intrinsic asthma is precipitated by exposure to cold temperatures or infection.

Extrinsic asthma is often associated with childhood eczema.

Assessment/ Symptoms

  • Wheezing
  • Restlessness
  • Tachycardia
  • Tachypnea
  • Hyperresonance

♣ Status Asthmaticus

severe life threatening asthma episode that can  result pneumothorax or acute purmonale.


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