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Assessment for patients with COPD:
Hypoxemia
Hypercapnia
Dyspnea on exertion
Use of Accessory Muscles

Chest X Ray- would show a hyper-inflated chest.

– Refers to respiratory conditions that causes obstruction in the airflow, such as:

  • ASTHMA
  • EMPHYSEMA
  • BRONCHITIS

* A complication of C.O.P.D is cor pulmonale (right sided heart failure).

REMEMBER FOR NCLEX:
♣ NEVER GIVE Beta Blockers to patient’s with asthma (causes bronchospasms.)

Chronic Bronchitis: When we talk about bronchitis, we are talking about an inflammation of the bronchi, that can lead to chronic lung infections.  These infections are characterized by productive cough and dyspnea.

ASSESSMENT

  • PURSED LIPS BREATHING
  • BARREL CHEST

Remember:
DO NOT GIVE THE PATIENT MORE THAN 2 L OF OXYGEN
THIS WILL DECREASE RESPIRATIONS, RESPIRATORY CENTER HAS ADJUSTED TO A HIGH LEVEL OF CO2.

EMPHYSEMA

Emphysema is the irreversable overdistention of the airspaces of the lungs which results in destruction of the alveolar walls.  Clients with emphysema are also called “pink puffer” or “blue bloaters”

ASTHMA

Asthma is the most common respiratory condition of childhood.
Intrinsic asthma is precipitated by exposure to cold temperatures or infection.
Extrinsic asthma is often associated with childhood eczema.
Assessment/ Symptoms

  • WHEEZING
  • RESTLESSNESS
  • TACHYCARDIA
  • TACHYPNEA
  • HYPERRESONANCE

♣ STATUS ASTHMATICUS
– severe life threatening asthma episode that can  result pneumothorax or acute purmonale.

TREATMENT
Medications:
Bronchodilator
Beta 2 Adregenegic Agonists
Expectorants

EMPHYSEMA
– enlargement and destruction of the alveolar tissue.
ASSESSMENT:
USE OF ACCESSORY MUSCLES DURING RESPIRATION.
EARLY SYMPTOM IS DYSPNEA.

BRONCHITIS
KNOWN AS “BLUE BLOATERS” BECAUSE OF THE DYSPNEA

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