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Pneumonia is a bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal infection that causes inflammation of the alveolar spaces.   The causes of Pneumonia can include various organisms such as the E. Coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and staph aureus and pneumocystis carinii, aspiration of food and aspiration of fluid.

  • During a pneumonia, the microorganisms enter the alveolar spaces by dropelet inhalation (therefore, you use droplet precaution, nclex).
  • Assessment for the patient would include coughing, malaise, chills, shortness of breath, dyspnea, crackles and ronchi.  There would also be some significant sputum production: rusty, green or bloody (pneumococcal pneumonia) and if it’s yellow-green (bronchopneumonia)
  • Diagnostic Test findings of pneuomonia would include sputum studies, which will help with the identificatio of the organism.  There would also be a chest X ray.  Hematology tests would show an increase in WBC and EXR
  • Medical Management for a patient with Pneumonia would include a high calorie, high protien diet.  Also try to encourage fluids and if necessary, have oxygen therapy.  The patient is usually placed in a semi fowlers position.  The patient is usually in bed rest .
  • Treatments would include chest physiotherapy and postural drainage, it is also important to use the incetive spirometry and the use of high -flow nebulizer.
  • Antibiotic therapy is important: The use of penicillin G , ampcillin, pentamidine and amoxicillin.  Antipyretics such as aspirin and acetyminophen (Tylenol) is also used.
  • Bronchodilators: metaprotenelol and albuterol can be used.

Pneumocystis carinii pneuomia- is most commonly associated with patients with a compromised immune system, such as a patient with HIV.


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