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Brain Tumors

  • Brain tumors can arise anywhere within the brain structures and are named according to the cell or tissue from which they originate. Primary tumors originate within the central nervous system (CNS) and rarely metastazie outside this area. Secondary brain tmors result from metastasis from other areas of body, such as the lungs, breat, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract.

Can Cause:

  • Cerebral edema/brain tissue inflammation
  • Increased intracranial pressure
  • Focal neurologic deficits
  • Obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Pituitary dysfunction
  1. Cerebral edema (spificially called vasogenic edema) leads to increased ICP—hemorrhages may also occur. 

*** Pituitiary dysfunction may occur as the tumor compresses the pituitary gland and causes the syndrome of inappropriate antiduretic hormone (SIADH) or diabetes insipidus (DI).



Assessment findings (Brain Cancer):

  • Headaches that are usually more severe on awakening in the morning
  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Visual symptoms
  •  Seizures

- Diagnosis through MRI/CT

– Non surgical management focuses on decreasing symptoms, size, improve survival time and quality of life

Craniotomy

  • is the most common surgical treatment and may be done to improve symptoms related to the lesion or to decrease pressure effects. Goal is to remove tumor without touching surrounding tissues.

Postoperatively, nurse assesses nuero/vials every 30mins for first 4 hours.

  • Fluid restriction to 1500mL. Turn and cough every 2 hours.
  • Should have head of bed elevated 30degrees to promote venous drainage from the head. Client may be turned side to side to remain supine. 
  • The client should be NPO for 24hours because edema around the medulla and lower cranial nerves may place the client at risk for vomit/aspiration
  • Check dressing every 1-2hours. Small, moderate amount of drainage expected. Hemovac,
  • Jackson-Pratt, or other surgical drains in place for 24hours after surgery. 

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