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Seizure

is a disorder that involves a sudden episode of abnormal, uncontrolled discharge of the electrical activity of the neurons within the brain.

Types of partial seizures

  • Simple partial: symptoms confined to one hemisphere Complex partial: begins in one focal area; spreads to both hemispheres.Types of generalized seizures

  • Abscense (petit mal):loss of responsiveness, but continued ability to maintain posture control and not fall.Myoclonic: movement disorder (not a seizure)
  • Clonic: opposing muscles contract and relax alternately in rhythmic pattern.Tonic: muscles are maintained in continuous contracted state (rigid posture)
  • Tonic-clonic: (grand mal, major motor); violent total body seizureAtonic: drop and fall attackAkinetic: suddenr brief loss of muscle tone or posture.

Prior to a seizure, the patient may experience an aura, a sensory alteration involving sight, sound or smell.  After the seizure, the patient enters a post-ictal stage where there may be confusion and the patient would usually be fatigued.

Status Epilepticus

  • A single seizure that can last longer than 5 min, or repeated minute seizure that can total up to more than 30 min.
  • A continuation of tonic clonic seizures without a recovery,.

 

Interventions

Administration of antiepileptic medications (as ordered) such as:

  • phenytoin
  • phenobarbital
  • clonazepam
  • carbamazepine

For status epilepticus:

  • Lorazepam (Ativan) and Valium to stop seizure activity.
  • Dilantin and Phenobarbital is then given.

VGN (Vagal Nerve Stimulation)

  • An electrode is place in the vagal nerve, causing a certain frequency of stimulation that can help decrease the incidence od seizure
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