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For the NCLEX, you will need to focus on the disorders of the lower and upper urinary tracts.

Lower urinary tract infections are disorders that cause problems or inflammation with the

  • (urethra) or the (bladder), such as urithritis and cystitis.

Upper Urinary tract infections includes renal infections usually includes

  • glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis.

Different Renal Disorders includes:

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Nephrotic Syndrome

  • Protienuria
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Hyperlipidemia

Glomerulonephritis/ Pyelonephritis


  • an infectious disease causing inflammation of the kidney organ and tissue.


  • a non bacterial inflammation of the kidney’s glumerolus.

Diagnostic Tests with the Urinary System:


  • Serum Creatinine Level
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN

Urine Culture and Sensitiviy

Creatinine Clearance Test

  1. Creatinine clearance test, evaluates how well the kidneys remove creatinine
  2. Blood is drawn after taking the urine sample.

Bladder Ultrasonography

Intravenous Pyelography

  • an x ray procedure
  • uses a radiopaque dye
  • assess for allergies

Renal Angiography

  • – injection of a radiopaque dye
  • – obtain informed consent.
  • – assess for allergies
  • – withold food after midnight
  • – inform pt. about throat irritation

Uric Acid Test

  • Uric acid test is a 24 hr. urine collection to diagnose for gout.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Prostate Cancer

Acute Renal Failure

A sudden but reversible loss of kidney function.

Chronic Renal Failure

Obstructive Disorders

Renal Dialysis


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