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Renal Dialysis

Dialysis

  • Two Types:
    – Hemodialysis
    – Peritoneal Dialysis
  • HEMODIALYSIS
    – a therapy used for the treatment of renal failure
    – dialysis removes excess fluids and waste products and restores chemical and
    Electrolye balance
    – Hemodialysis involves passing the client’s blood through an artificial semi permeable
    membrane to perform the filtering and excretion functions of the kidney.
    – starting the therapy depends on client symptoms not on the creatinine clearance.

Dialysate

is made from clear water and chemicals and is free of any waste products or drugs.

Anticoagulation
– to prevent blood clots from forming within the dialyzer or the blood tubing, anticoagulation
is needed during HD treatments.

Remember that Heparin is the most common used drug, to prevent clot from forming.

Types of Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

Access Type
Permanent
– AV fistula
– AV graft

– Dual- lumen hem dialysis catheter

Temporary
– Hemodialysis Catheter (Dual or Triple Lumen)
– AV Shunt (relatively uncommon)
– Subcutaneous Device

  • Complications of Hemodialysis (It is very important to know this)
    Most common complications from hem dialysis includes
    Disequilibrium Syndrome
  • Viral Infections.

Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome
– may develop during hemodialysis or after hem dialysis has been completed.
– the cause is thought to be due to rapid decrease in fluid volume and blood urea nitrogen
REMEMBER:

Caring for Patient undergoing Hemodialysis:
– weight the client before and after dialysis
– know the client’s dry weight
– discuss with the physician whether any of the ct’s meds. Is withheld until after dialysis
– measure blood pressure, pulse rate, respirations and temperature.

PERITONEAL DIALYSIS

– occurs in the peritoneal cavity
– Peritoneal Dialysis is slower than Hemodialysis, however, and more time is
needed to achieve the same effect.
– at times, a client may use PD until a new arteriovenous (AV) fistula matures.
– PD is also the treatment of choice for adults because its more flexible.

Types Of Peritoneal Dialysis
– Continous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

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