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NCLEX Review Infection Control

NCLEX Review on Safety and Infection Control

NCLEX Review:  Infection Control

When we are talking about Safety and Infection Control we need to simplify things and really understand what is safety and infection control and what the NCLEX wants us to focus on with this topic.  It is very important to realize that  The “Safety and Infection Control” now makes up about 10 -14% of the questions in the entire NCLEX Exam  This is a huge part of the exam, which means that it can be a factor for us either passing or failing the NCLEX exam.

So lets simplify the SAFETY AND INFECTION CONTROL information that we need to know for this NCLEX Review.  So the first thing that we need to learn is to understand and simplify each category and correlate  which particular disease belongs to each particular category.  We have to know this by heart, and to do this we really need to know the basics of each diseases.

So first lets go over the STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

Standard precautions simply are the basic level of infection control that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time.  Basically we use standard precautions in the care of all patients, in order to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms.

It is also called UNIVERSAL Precaution.

NCLEX Review:  Review on Safety and Infection Control

Personal protective equipment (PPE) that we need  includes: Gowns, Mask and Eye protection

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of Safety and Infection Control in the NCLEX Exam which is knowing all the necessary precautions.  And obviously  in order to be successful in the NCLEX, you have to know this by heart.

The three main transmission based precautions aree Contact precautions– Droplet precautions and Airborne precaution

Lets begin with Contact Precaution.  It is pretty much self explanatory in a sense that it is transmitted through usually skin to skin contact. Now the major diseases that exist that enables the organism to be transferred through contact precaution that you will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam includes mostly skin infections.  Since the skin is the number one barrier during a contact.

  • Varicella zoster

  • Herpes simplex

  • Impetigo

  • Scabies, Staphylococcus

Now lets take a look at Droplet precaution which can occur from a source such as a person during coughing, or sneezing or  talking,  Now these Droplets that contain the microorganisms can generally travel no more than 3 feet from the patient.

What Diseases can we usually see that involves droplet precuations in the NCLEX?

These disease can include

* Diptheria

* Streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis

* Meningitis

* Mumps

* Pertussis

* Scarlet fever

 

Lastly, lets go over the AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

NCLEX DISEASES: AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

DISEASES that you will most likely encounter in the NCLEX.

* TB (m. Tuberculosis) 

* Measles (rubeola)

* Chicken Pox (varicella)

* Shingles (disseminated zoster)

 

Remember that with TB – Tuberculosis you will need a:

  • PRIVATE ROOM

  • NEGATIVE PRESSURE WITH 6-12 AIR EXCHANGES PER HOUR

So its basically a negative pressurized room.  What this does is that it enables a ventillation system that generates negative pressure to allow air to flow into the room and not allow the pathogens to escape.

  • MASK

NCLEX Priority: Make sure to wear our speacial mask which is the N95 MASK FOR TB.

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Infection Control NCLEX Review

Everyone taking the NCLEX or is about to take the NCLEX  has realized that the NCSBN had change some of the content format of the NCLEX.  One of the big changes includes the percent amount of Safety and Infection Control that will be on the NCLEX.  The “Safety and Infection Control” now makes up about 8-14% of the questions in the NCLEX, I believe that it only previously composed of about 9-12% prior (or I could be wrong).

Infection Control

Recently Infection Control makes up about 10- 13% of the NCLEX.  That means that if you are able to get the average of about 130-150 questions, then you are guaranteed to recieved between 15- 20 questions that is related to Infection Control.  Even if we get the least (75) amount of questions, we can still receive about 7-9 questions that is related to infection control, that is a HUGE help, if we do well on these questions.  I personally dont think that Infection control is a difficult area.  I believe that most of the nursing students never really studied “Infection Control,” when they were in Nursing School.  Therefore, this lack of knowledge did not prepare the majority of the Nursing Student for the NCLEX.

Standard Precautions

– is always done in congruent with the other types of precautions.

Transmission-based Precautions includes:

A – Airborne
D – Droplet
C – Contact

Airborne Precaution

  • is done when small droplets of infected pathogens are about ( 5 um) are suspended in the air over time and travels a distance of more than (3) three feet.

AIRBORNE PRECAUTION is used with these diseases:

My – Measles

  • Measles- or rubeola
  • Can be transmitted through blood urine and droplets
  • Communicable about 4-5 days after the rash
  • Treatment: Bedrest and antibiotics

Chicken – Chickenpox

  • Chickenpox (Varicella)
  • Pt. will have a slight fever
  • macular rash appears on trunk and eventually turn to crust.

Hez – Herpes Zoster (Disseminated)

TB – Tuberculosis

  • Private room
  • Negative pressure with 6-12 air exchanges per hour
  • UV
  • Mask
  • N95 Mask for TB

DROPLET PRECAUTION

S – Sepsis
S – Scarlet fever
S – Streptococcal pharyngitis
P – Pneumonia
I – Influenza
D – Diptheria (Pharyngeal)
E – Epiglottitis

What is necesary: Private room and Mask

Contact Precation
M – Multidrug resistant organism
R – Respiratory infection – RSV
E – Enteric infections – clostridium defficile
E – Eye infections

Skin Infections:
V – Varicella zoster
C – Cutaneous diptheria
H – Herpes simplex
I – Impetigo
S – Scabies, Staphylococcus

Private room
Gloves
Gowns

NCLEX Review on Infection Control

It is really important to study and understand Infection Control for the NCLEX Exam.

Lets look at Infection Control more closely for the NCLEX:

INFECTION CONTROL: NCLEX REVIEW

 

Nclex Infection Control Review on Contact Precautions 
Contact Precautions -Any Physical Skin-Skin Contact
-Contact with contaminated inanimate objects
*Clean (non-sterile) gloves must be used.
*Change gloves after contact with feces, and/or wound drainage
*Remove gloves & wash hands w/antimicrobial cleanser
* Use gown if RN will have contact with, or if client is incontinent, has an iliostomy/colostomy, wound drainage.
* Remove gown before leaving client’s room

Infection Control NCLEX Diseases
Contact Precautions Diseases:
* MRSA
* Vancomycin resistant organisms
* Herpes simplex & zoster
* Hep A
* GI, Wound, & UTIs
* Pediculosis
* Scabies
* C. diff
* RSV
* Hep A if patient is diapered or incontinent
Lyme Disease Stage 1 = rash/papule at area of tick bite (2-30 days), concentric rings/bull’s eye, lesion enlarges quickly. Regional lymphadenopathy. Flu-like symptoms (malaise, fever, HA, myalgia, arthralgia, conjunctivitis) within one to several months.

Stage 2 (if untreated for 1-6 mo.) = Cardiac conduction defects. Neurological disorders: facial paralysis, paralysis that is not permanent.

Stage 3 = Arthralgias, enlarged or inflamed joints, chronic fatigue, cognitive disorders.

 

 

♦ NCLEX DISEASES: Airborne Precautions 

Airborne Precautions < 5 Microns

Make sure that these patients would require:

  1. PRIVATE ROOM
  2. CLOSED DOOR
  3. FILTERED MASK
    Client requires a private room w/ neg air pressure and 6-12 air exchanges per hour.
    Door must remain closed
    N-95 Hepa filter mask

NCLEX DISEASES: Airborne Precautions
Diseases:
* TB (m. Tuberculosis) MUST WEAR FIT TESTED MASK
* Measles (rubeola)
* Chicken Pox (varicella)
* Shingles (disseminated zoster)

 

 

 Nclex Infection Control Review on Droplet Precautions 
Droplet Precautions > 5 Microns
Client requires a private room
Room door may remain open
Any contact with conjunctiva or mucous membranes (nose or mouth), coughing, sneezing, talking or procedures such as suctioning or bronchoscopy
Must maintain spatial separation of 3 feet
If < 3 feet, staff or visitors must wear a mask (i.e. staff giving direct care)

* When transporting client, s/he must wear a mask
Diseases:
* Diptheria
* Streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis
* certain pneumonias
* Meningitis -If caused by H. influenzae Type B or N. meningitidis
* Mumps
* Pertussis
* Scarlet fever

 

Nclex Infection Control Review on Aids

AIDS — opportunistic infections

  • TB
  • PCP (P. carinii – pneumonia)
  • C. albicans
  •  C. neoformans (debilitating meningitis)
  • CMV, Kaposi’s sarcoma (most common malignancy)

AIDS Syndrome +ve for HIV in blood (+ve ELISA with a Western Blot or indirect immunoflourescence assay (IFA) follow up) and CD4/TC counts below 200

NCLEX Infection Control: Transmission of Hepatitis

  • Hep A transmission Fecal/Oral (shellfish in contaminated water, contaminated food handlers etc.)
    Hep B transmission Parenteral (blood). maternal – fetal, sexual contact
    Hep C transmission Parenteral (blood), sexual contact
    Hep D transmission co-infects w/ Hep B

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