Skip to content

NCLEX Review & Nursing School

"The Largest NCLEX Online Review" "Nursing School and NCLEX simplified"

Tag Archives: NCLEX

NCLEX Review on Hepatitis

Today we will be talking about one of the most common diseases that you might encounter in the NCLEX which is that of Hepatitis.

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue its as plain and simple as that
And believe it or not a good portion of the people who has the less severe type of hepatitis will show no symptoms whereas others develop the some of the more common symptoms such as yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes, which what we call jaundice
and this is due to the liver not being able to breakdown and get rid of Bilirubin which as a a yellow pigment that is formed when our bodies breakdown our red blood cells in the liver.

now also other most common symptoms can include:
poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

Now as we all know Hepatitis may be temporary (acute) or long term (chronic) depending on whether it lasts for less than or more than six months.

Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, or progress chronic hepatitis, or if not treated can lead to acute liver failure.

Over time the chronic form may progress to scarring of the liver, liver failure, or liver cancer.

CLASSIFICATIONS of Hepatitis Virus and its way of TRANSMISSION:

Now there are actually 5 types which are hepatitis a b c d and e
but on this quick review we will only be looking at the first three.

(If we look at the transmission: HEPATITIS B AND C are the only ones transmitted through blood and sexual contact).

Hepatitis A (transmitted through oral/fecal/water route)
Hepatitis B (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)
Hepatitis C (transmitted through blood/drug use/sexual contact/childbirth)

HEPATITIS A

– Incubation period usually lasts from 15-45 days.
– Transmitted primarily through fecal/ oral route.
– Prevention includes sanitation and handwashing.
– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis A.
– Prevention against Hepatitis A includes:

PROPER HANDWASHING
AVOIDANCE OF CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER
RECIEVING THE HAV VACCINE

HEPATITIS B
– transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors).

– There is a vaccine available for Hepatitis B.

HEPATITIS C

– Hepatitis C is transmitted through blood to blood contact sexual contact or drug use (needles, razors)

– The patient can be asymptomatic and others are only diagnosed once abnormality is detected in the liver enzymes.

SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE HEPATITIS C

FEVER
FATIGUE
LOSS OF APPETITE
NAUSEA
VOMITING
ABDOMINAL PAIN
DARK URINE
CLAY-COLORED BOWEL MOVEMENTS
JAUNDICE (YELLOW COLOR IN THE SKIN OR EYES)
SOME OF THESE SYMPTOMS CAN ALSO BE PRESENT ON OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF HEPATITIS* .

NCLEX Review on Hepatitis

HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C is connected with cirrhosis and liver cancer.

ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) is the initial screening test for clients suspected of infected of the Hepatitis C (HCV) Virus.
LIVER BIOPSY can also be used to confirm the diagnosis of Hepatitis.
Treatment most often used for Hepatitis C is a combination of two medicines, INTERFERON AND RIBAVIRIN.

Here are some of the Best Nursing Homes in New York City

https://www.seniorhug.com

Tags: , , ,

NCLEX Review on ARDS

Hello everyone today we will be talking about Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

An Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) what occurs is that there is fluid that builds up in the tiny, elastic air sacs called (alveoli) in your lungs.

And what occurs is that the fluid keeps your lungs from filling with enough air, which means less oxygen reaches your bloodstream.

And in turn this deprives your organs of the oxygen they need to function.

Now understand that ARDS typically occurs in people who are already critically ill or who have significant injuries.

Now lets look at a few of the symptoms

NCLEX Review Notes on ARDS

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of ARDS can vary in intensity and basically depending on the cause and severity:

So the patient would be hypoxic and would show signs of
Severe shortness of breath
Labored and rapid breathing
and there would be
– Presence of crackles or (rhonci)
when we assess the patient

The patient would also have a Low blood pressure
and also be somewhat lethargic and confused

 

Lets look at a few of the Complications with ARDS

If you have ARDS, you can develop other medical problems while in the hospital. The most common problems are:

Blood clots. This is very dangerous because it can cause a (pulmonary embolism).
Collapsed lung (pneumothorax). there fore In most ARDS cases, a ventilator is used to increase oxygenation.
Infections. Because the ventilator is attached directly to a tube inserted in your windpipe, this makes it much easier for germs to infect and further injure your lungs.

Diagnosis
There’s no specific test to identify ARDS. The diagnosis is based on the physical exam, chest X-ray and oxygen levels.

– Diagnosed through the X- Ray (Ground Glass) Appearance within the lungs and this is due to the fluid buildup.

– A noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema.
excess fluid in the lungs

Lab tests

The lab test will also show a decrease in the oxygen level throughout the body.

Treatment

The first goal in treating ARDS is to improve the levels of oxygen in your blood. Without oxygen, your organs can’t function properly.

NCLEX Review

Oxygen

So there are various ways that we can give supplemental oxygen
and that includes Mechanical ventilation.
The mechanical ventilator pushes air into your lungs and forces some of the fluid out of the air sacs.

The common Mechanical Ventillation includes PEEP or positive end-expiratory pressure.
basically its A method of ventilation in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure

Another method is the CPAP or Continuous positive airway pressure
Now with CPAP, it basically applies mild air pressure on a continuous basis to keep the airways continuously open.

Tags: , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

NCLEX Review Infection Control

NCLEX Review on Safety and Infection Control

NCLEX Review:  Infection Control

When we are talking about Safety and Infection Control we need to simplify things and really understand what is safety and infection control and what the NCLEX wants us to focus on with this topic.  It is very important to realize that  The “Safety and Infection Control” now makes up about 10 -14% of the questions in the entire NCLEX Exam  This is a huge part of the exam, which means that it can be a factor for us either passing or failing the NCLEX exam.

So lets simplify the SAFETY AND INFECTION CONTROL information that we need to know for this NCLEX Review.  So the first thing that we need to learn is to understand and simplify each category and correlate  which particular disease belongs to each particular category.  We have to know this by heart, and to do this we really need to know the basics of each diseases.

So first lets go over the STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

Standard precautions simply are the basic level of infection control that should be used in the care of all patients all of the time.  Basically we use standard precautions in the care of all patients, in order to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms.

It is also called UNIVERSAL Precaution.

NCLEX Review:  Review on Safety and Infection Control

Personal protective equipment (PPE) that we need  includes: Gowns, Mask and Eye protection

Now lets go over the meat and potatoes of Safety and Infection Control in the NCLEX Exam which is knowing all the necessary precautions.  And obviously  in order to be successful in the NCLEX, you have to know this by heart.

The three main transmission based precautions aree Contact precautions– Droplet precautions and Airborne precaution

Lets begin with Contact Precaution.  It is pretty much self explanatory in a sense that it is transmitted through usually skin to skin contact. Now the major diseases that exist that enables the organism to be transferred through contact precaution that you will most likely encounter in your NCLEX exam includes mostly skin infections.  Since the skin is the number one barrier during a contact.

  • Varicella zoster

  • Herpes simplex

  • Impetigo

  • Scabies, Staphylococcus

Now lets take a look at Droplet precaution which can occur from a source such as a person during coughing, or sneezing or  talking,  Now these Droplets that contain the microorganisms can generally travel no more than 3 feet from the patient.

What Diseases can we usually see that involves droplet precuations in the NCLEX?

These disease can include

* Diptheria

* Streptococcal pharyngitis/tonsillitis

* Meningitis

* Mumps

* Pertussis

* Scarlet fever

 

Lastly, lets go over the AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

NCLEX DISEASES: AIRBORNE PRECAUTIONS

DISEASES that you will most likely encounter in the NCLEX.

* TB (m. Tuberculosis) 

* Measles (rubeola)

* Chicken Pox (varicella)

* Shingles (disseminated zoster)

 

Remember that with TB – Tuberculosis you will need a:

  • PRIVATE ROOM

  • NEGATIVE PRESSURE WITH 6-12 AIR EXCHANGES PER HOUR

So its basically a negative pressurized room.  What this does is that it enables a ventillation system that generates negative pressure to allow air to flow into the room and not allow the pathogens to escape.

  • MASK

NCLEX Priority: Make sure to wear our speacial mask which is the N95 MASK FOR TB.

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

nclexreviewpassdog

nclexvidpriorization

NCLEX Review Shownotes:

I have mentioned before that pharmacology plays a big role and a big factor with the NCLEX exam. If we encounter the mid level which are basically the competent questions which is exactly what we need to know and what the NCSBN or Board of Nursing wants us to answer correctly in order to pass the NCLEX exam. Then it is expected from us to understand the management and prioritization aspects of certain medications that we have to know for the NCLEX.  That simply means to know and understand side effects or adverse reactions for certain medications and also how management and prioritization would be applied towards Pharmacology in correlation to the impact of the side effects or adverse reactions towards the patient. What it means is basically as a nurse or as a nurse graduate taking the NCLEX exam,  it is our job and our duty to be conscious and aware of certain side effects and how that impacts our client.  Also implications that we need to know for certain medications such as interactions or interventions that will become a priority for us as the nurse, in taking take care of our patient.  This entails knowing the specifics factors such as the ABG’s, vital signs and lab values and all of the symptomatic signs. Now let’s look at a few important examples of the most important pharmacological categories of medications that we will most likely encounter in the NCLEX exam.

NCLEX Review Cardiac Medications

Now let’s begin with the important medications that is used for hypertension, which is diuretics. Lets talk about diuretics, which helps get rid of sodium and fluid in the body. Diuretics is used to lower the blood pressure and therefore promotes excretion of sodium and water. Now with this in mind we can understand that diuretics interferes with the patient’s blood pressure (which means it can significantly drop) as a result: decrease in the preload and afterload in the body.   Therefore, a priority would be giving IV fluids to that patient.   And since there would be sodium absorption in the kidneys, it causes an increases the urine output.

Now let’s go over a specific type of diuretics and start with a potassium sparing diuretics. With a potassium sparing diuretic, it basically promotes the excretion of sodium and water while the retention of potassium (Important to know for NCLEX Review).  And basically is used usually for hypertension and edema and for a patient with hypokalemia or hypokalemic symptoms.   An example of a potassium sparing diuretics would include Spir0nolactone, which will usually be very common in the NCLEX exam. So what is the prioritization for this particular patient:  Obviously the patient could end up having too much potassium and that would cause hyperkalemia, so therefore then we would have to know the symptoms of  hypokalemia (now we all know that Potassium is needed for cells, especially nerve and muscle cells, to function properly) as a result the person can have symptoms that can include irregular heartbeat, nervousness, tingling in the hands, shortness of breath and nausea and vomiting.

Let’s talk about another category of cardiovascular medications which is beta-adrenergic blockers or beta blockers and basically beta blockers helps lower blood pressure and pulse rate.   It is also used to treat headaches, glaucoma and prevent MI or myocardial infartions by blocking the sympathetic motor response of the body.  Always try to remember that the beta blocker medications would usually end in syllables “lol” .  Common Beta Blockers that you can encounter in the NCLEX includes (Metoprolol, Carvedilol, Acebutolol).   Beta blockers block the action of catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and as we all know this causes the fight-or-flight response of the body therefore the opposite effect can be manifested as the adverse reaction.  So, Side effects for patients taking  Beta blockers would include orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea. We need to know that some of the symptoms may mask signs of hypoglycemia in the patient and is manifested as hypoglycemic symptoms.  This is due to the fact that beta blockers normally stimulate hepatic glycogen breakdown in the pancreas and causes the release of glucagon. So we need to take note of that for the NCLEX

Nursing interventions for clients with beta blockers would include interventions such as making sure that we monitor the clients blood pressure, and heart rate.  We also need to monitor the client for signs of edema.  So as the nurse, we should assess the lung sounds for the signs of rales and rhonchi which can be due to obviously fluid overload. When patients are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as protein, B UN and creatinine which can indicate nephrotic syndrome in the kidneys and that can be a problem. Nursing teaching for these patients would include teaching the client to rise slowly because the cause orthostatic hypotension which can become a safety issue and we also need to tell the patients to  report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness and confusion.

Focus on this Topic:

  • Potassium Sparing Diuretics
  • Beta Blockers

♣ Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

DIURETICS

– HELPS GET RID OF THE SODIUM AND FLUID IN THE BODY.
– USED TO LOWER THE BLOOD PRESSURE.
– PROMOTES THE EXCRETION OF SODIUM AND WATER
– DIURETICS INTERFERES WITH THE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN THE KIDNEY.
– INCREASES THE URINE OUTPUT. DECREASES THE PRELOAD AND AFTERLOAD..
If the patients blood pressure drop to low, it is important to give IV FLUIDS to pt.

LETS GO OVER THE CATEGORIES OF DIURETICS ♠

♦ TYPES OF DIURETICS

♣ POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS

It promotes the excretion of soduium and water, while the retention of pottasium

Used for:

HYPERTENSION
EDEMA
HYPERALDOSTERONISM
HYPOKALEMIA
MEDICATION:

SPIRONOLACTON (ALDACTONE)
AMILORIDE (MIDAMOR)
TRIAMTERENE
Now lets go to the SIDE EFFECTS:

First, of course the person can have too much potassium or HYPERKALEMIA:

Signs of HYPERKALEMIA

IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
NERVOUSNESS
TINGLING IN HANDS AND FEET
SHORTNESS OF BREATH
TIREDNESS OR WEAKNESS
OTHER SIDE EFFECTS:

NAUSEA AND VOMITING
CRAMPING AND DIARRHEA
DIZZINESS & HEADACHE

BETA (ADRENERGIC) BLOCKERS

– Helps lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.
– Can be used to treat headaches.
– Can be used to treat glacauma and prevent myocardial infarctions.
– Acts on the system, by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.

For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

SIDE EFFECTS:

ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
BRADYCARDIA
NAUSEA AND VOMITING
DIARRHEA
NOTE: Some of the symptoms may MASK signs of Hypoglycemia

♠ HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker. Monitor the client for signs of edema. The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi. When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome. Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever. It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

CARDIAC PHARMACOLOGY

♣ NCLEX Review Notes:.

♣ NCLEX REVIEW PHARMACOLOGY

Drugs Used for treating Hypertension:

BETA BLOCKERS
– REDUCES THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND DECREASES THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM RESPONSE.
– BLOCKS THE BETA RECEPTOR, CAUSING A DECREASE IN BLOOD PRESSURE.
– MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “OLOL’S”: METROPOLOL, PROPANALOL, ACEBUTOLOL, NADOLOL.
– USED FOR HYPERTENSION, MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ANGINA.
ADVERSE EFFECTS CAN INCLUDE: BRADYCARDIA, HYPOTENSION AND HYPOGLYCEMIA (DISTRUPTS THE LIVER’S ABILITY TO CONVERT GLYCOGEN TO GLUCOSE).

If you are looking for the right Nursing Home for your loved ones. Please visit SeniorHug.

 

Tags: , , , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

NCLEX Review of Endocrine Medications

nclexreviewendocrinemedsvideo

[youtube http://youtu.be/l9ePztPoSwQ w=400&h=300]

NCLEX Review Notes:

A quick NCLEX Review on Pituitary Gland Disorders

Pituitary Gland Disorders

HYPOPITUITARISM

Insuffecient quantities of anterior pituitary gland hormones.

ASSESSMENT

  • Lethargy
  • Hypothermia
  • Weight loss
  • Amenorrhea
  • Dry Skin
  • Hypotension

– Monitor the patient’s risk for infection.

Treatment

Surgery: if hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor.

Hormone therapy

  • Corticosteroids (cortisol)
  • Growth hormone
  • Sex hormones (testosterone for men and estrogen for women)
  • Thyroid hormone

HYPERPITUITARISM

Also called Acromegaly and Cushings’s Disease

ACROMEGALY
Often a result of a benign tumor

ASSESMENT

  • – large hands and feet
  • – protruding jaw and forehead

TREATMENT

  • Hypophysectomy
  • Corticosteroids
  • Elevate head at least 30 degrees.
  • Glucocoritcoids
  • Hormones
  • * Surgery ( Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery) to remove the pituitary tumor might be the best treatment.
Meds. used to control increased GH:
  • Octreotide (Sandostatin)
  • bromocriptine (Parlodel)

DISORDER OF THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.

♣ DIABETES INSIPIDUS


– Hyposecretion of the ADH hormone.
Assessment:

  • POLYURIA (4-24 L/DAY)
  • POLYDIPSIA
  • DEHYDRATION
  • LOW URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.006 OR LOWER
  • FATIGUE
  • HYPOTENSION
  • TACHYCARDIA

– * Fluid Deficit is a priority

Medication:

  • VASOPRESSIN (PITRESSIN) *used as an antidiuretic hormone

Examples of Antidiuretic Hormones:

  • Desmopressin acetate
  • Vasopressin (Pitressin)

Side Effects (Antidiuretic Hormones)

  • Headache
  • Nausea & Vomiting
  • Water Intoxication
  • Hypertension
Vasopressin
  • it’s an antidiuretic hormone
  • prevent the loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and reabsorbing water in the body
  • (Increases BP)= by constricting (narrowing) blood vessels
Side Effects (VASOPRESSIN)
  • throbbing headache
  • stomach pain, bloating
  • dizziness, nausea
  • blanching of the skin
♦ Due to increase urine output -> pt. is in risk of HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK.

♠ SIADH

♠ Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

– excess ADH is being released

Assessment:

  • FLUID OVERLOAD
  • WEIGHT GAIN
  • HYPERTENSION
  • TACHYCARDIA
  • HYPONATREMIA

Interventions:

  • – Monitor fluid & electrolyte imbalance
  • – Fluid restriction.

Tags: , , , , , ,

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

nclexreviewsimple

NCLEX Review: Neurological System

[youtube http://youtu.be/5AHvjKjCJhA w=400&h=300]

nclexrevneuro

Show Notes:

Lou Gehrig’s Disease/ Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Degeneration of the nerves that controls the voluntary muscles.

ASSESSMENT:

  • Muscle Weakness and Twitching
  • Fatigue
  • dysphagia
  • dysarthia (difficulty swallowing)
  • cramping

– Lowe extremities are usually involved late in the disease.

Treatment:

Riluzole (Rilutek)

Side Effects:

  • nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite
  • dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice
  • fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms

Antispasmodics

  • baclofen
  • diazepam

Interventions:

Conserve energy by spacing activities.

Small frequent feedings.

The Nervous System

NCLEX Review on the Neurological System

Time Management:

  • Make sure to read and understand the overview of the Nervous System:
  • Focus in understanding the causes and logic behind each disease.
  • Have an understanding of the signs and symptoms of the disease.
  • Know the medications and the rationale behind using those meds.

Understand that the Nervous system includes the Central Nervous System (CNS), the Peripheral Nervous Sytem (PNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System or the (ANS).

When I say the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, We can simplify at as the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD.

The PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM on the other hand, contains the Cranial NERVES and the SPINAL NERVES.

  • WHEN WE TALK ABOUT THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, WE ARE BASICALLY TALKING ABOUT THE “SYMPATHETIC” (FIGHT OR FLIGHT) SYSTEM OR THE “PARASYMPATHETIC” SYSTEM.
  • .THE BASIC COMPONENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM IS THE NERVE CELL OR NEURON

NEURON

– is the primary component of the nervous system.

– it is composed of cell body (gray matter), axon and dendrites.

BRAIN (Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord).

CEREBRUM- Outermost area (cerebral cortex) is gray matter, deeper area is composed of white matter

  • TWO HEMISPHERES: LEFT AND RIGHT AND EACH HEMISPHERE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO LOBES.

FRONTAL LOBE

  • PERSONALITY, BEHAVIOR
  • HIGHER INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING
  • BROCA’S AREA: (MOTOR SPEECH AREA)

PARIETAL LOBE

  • POSTCENTRAL GYRUS: REGISTERS SENSATION (TOUCH, PRESSURE)
  • INTEGRATES SENSORY INFORMATION

TEMPORAL LOBE

  • HEARING, TASTE, SMELL (hint: location of ears – close the temples)
  • WERNICKE’S AREA: SENSORY SPEECH AREA
  • (UNDERSTANDING, FORMATION OF LANGUAGE)

OCCIPITAL LOBE

  • VISION

Peripheral Nervous System- composed of Spinal Nerves (31)

Autonomic Nervous System- part of the Peripheral Nervous System

  • REGULATES FUNCTIONS OCCURRING AUTOMATICALLY IN THE BODY.
  • ANS REGULATES SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE AND GLANDS.

IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO KNOW EVERY PHYSIOLOGY FOR EVERY SINGLE PART OF THE BRAIN. BUT JUST IN CASE WE GO END UP GETTING LOW LEVEL QUESTIONS ON THE EXAM, THEN IT IS IMPORTANT THAT WE UNDERSTAND THE BASIC CONCEPT AND FUNCTION OF EACH AREA. IT WOULD ALSO BE A GREAT IDEA TO KNOW THE CRANIAL NERVES.

The CRANIAL NERVES

GLASCOW COMA SCALE

INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

MENINGITIS

ENCEPHALITIS

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

topreviewall

pharmnclexblue

NCLEX Pharmacology

A Quick Review on Pharmacology

♣ Show Notes

NCLEX Review on Pharmacology

The fact is that pharmacology will always be a big part in your NCLEX Exam, and can be a huge catalyst in whether you pass or fail your NCLEX Exam.  It is quite important for us to focus a lot on the content that pertains to medications, if we are reviewing for the NCLEX.  The NCSBN (who is responsible for developing the NCLEX Exam) defines the category of Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies as a sub-category within the Physiological Integrity area (of the exam)  in which the nurse is basically providing care related to the administration of medications and parenteral therapies.

To be more specific, Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapy has contents that  includes but is not limited to:

  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions
  • Expected Actions/Outcomes
  • Medication Administration
  • Blood and Blood Products
  • Parenteral/Intravenous Therapies
  • Central Venous Access Devices
  • Pharmacological Pain Management
  • Dosage Calculation

First, I want to take a step back and look at Pharmacology from a technical sense and look at it more in depth.

What is Pharmacology?

♠ PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacokinetics– The study if how drugs are being absorbed, distribuited, metabolized and excreted by the body.
Pharmacodynamics– is the study of how drugs are being used by the body.
Pharmacotherapeutics– the study of how the client responds to the particular drugs.

What’s in a drug name?
Chemical Name:
This tells you the chemical makeup of the drug.
Generic Name
This name is given by the company that developed the drug.
Trade Name
This is the name given to the drug by the company in which the medication originated.

The Seven Rights of Administering Drugs

  • Right Client
  • Right Route
  • Right Drug
  • Right Dose
  • Right Amount
  • Right Time
  • Right Documentation
  • Right to refuse treatment

Any drug can have a CHEMICAL NAME, A GENERIC NAME AND A BRAND OR TRADE NAME.

  • The generic name of a drug is suggested by the manufacturer, and accepted by the international committee.
  • How the drug is being affected affects the body and the patient’s response is called the effect.
  • Efficacy refers to the degree to which a drug is able to induce it’s maximal effects.
  • Adverse Effect is any unexpected or unintended response to a therapeutic use of a drug, it is also called side effect.

During this review, I want to focus specifically towards the drugs that is mostly in patients with hypertension.

DRUGS USED WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM

hypmeds

Cardiac Pharmacology

♣ Pharmacology Drugs for Hypertension:

DIURETICS

  • – Helps get rid of the sodium and fluid in the body.
  • – Used to lower the blood pressure.
    – Promotes the excretion of sodium and water
    – Diuretics interferes with the sodium absorption in the kidney.
    – Increases the urine output.  Decreases the preload and afterload..

If the patients blood pressure drop to low, it is important to give IV fluids to pt.

LETS GO OVER THE CATEGORIES OF DIURETICS ♠

♦ TYPES OF DIURETICS

♣ POTTASIUM SPARING DIURETICS

It promotes the excretion of soduium and water, while the retention of pottasium

Used for:

  • Hypertension
  • Edema
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Hypokalemia

Medication:

  • SPIRONOLACTON (ALDACTONE)
  • AMILORIDE (MIDAMOR)
  • TRIAMTERENE

Now lets go to the side effects:

First, of course the person can have too much potassium or HYPERKALEMIA:

Signs of HYPERKALEMIA

  • irregular heartbeat
  • nervousness
  • tingling in hands and feet
  • shortness of breath
  • tiredness or weakness

OTHER SIDE EFFECTS:

  1. Nausea and vomiting
  2. Cramping and diarrhea
  3. Dizziness & headache

Loop Diuretics

  • BUMETANIDE (BUMEX)
  • FUROSEMIDE (LASIX)

Osmotic Diuretics

MANNITOL

  • Thizade Diuretics

HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HYDRODIURIL)
CHLOROTHIAZIDE (DIURIL)
CAUSES THE DEPLETION OF SODIUM AND WATER.
♣ CAN INDUCE HYPERGLYCEMIA

Very Important for the NCLEX:

SIDE EFFECTS OF DIURETICS

  • Frequent urination
  • Electrolyte abnormalitie
  • Muscle cramps or weakness
  • Blurred vision
  • confusion
  • headache
  • increased perspiration (sweating)
  • restlessness

BETA (ADRENERGIC)  BLOCKERS

– Helps lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output.
– Can be used to treat headaches.
– Can be used to treat glacauma and prevent myocardial infarctions.
– Acts on the system, by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response.

For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • bradycardia
  • nausea and vomiting
  • diarrhea

NOTE: Some of the symptoms may MASK signs of Hypoglycemia

♠ HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS:

Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker.  Monitor the client for signs of edema.  The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi.  When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protein, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.  Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever.  It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

pharmnclexreview

Cardiac Pharmacology

♣ Calcium Channel Blockers

  1. – PREVENTS THE MOVEMENT MECHANISM OF CALCIUM WITHIN THE CARDIAC SYSTEM.
  2. – THEREFORE DECREASING THE CARDIAC WORKLOAD, AND CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTILIY.
  3. – MEDICATIONS INCLUDE THE “DIPINE” : DILITAZEM (CARDIZEM), AMLOPIDINE (NORVASC), NEFEDIPINE, NICARDIPINE.
  4. – USED TO TREAT ANGINA.
  • Remember:

– Blocks the calcium channels in the heart, causing a decrease in contractility.
Decreases the workload of the heart.

Used for:
Hypertension

Medications:

  • Nifedipine (Procardia)
  • Amplodipine (Norvasc)
  • Do not give Norvasc with grapefruit, causees increase in drug level.
  • Verapamil (Isoptin)
  • Diltiazem (Cardizem)

SIDE EFFECTS:

Constipation
Nausea
Headache
Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
Drowsiness

Remember:

  • Make sure to monitor the heart rate and the blood pressure.
  • Hold medication if HR is less than 60 or if BP is less than BP.

♠ ACE INHIBITOR

  1. – ACE INHIBITORS “BLOCKS” THE CONVERSION OF ANGIOTENSIN 1 TO ANGIOTENSIN 2.
  2. – ALTERS THE “BLOOD PRESSURE” MECHANISM THROUGH THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
  3. MEDICATIONS INCLUDES THE “PRIL” : CATOPRIL, ENALAPRIL, LISINOPRIL, RAMIPRIL.

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • COUGH
  • TACHYCARDIA
  • NAUSEA AND VOMITING.

Remember:
GIVE ON AN EMPTY STOMACH OR 2-3 HRS. AFTER A MEAL.

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

newpostncexpack

Tags: , , , ,

How to Pass the NCLEX Exam

pass NCLEX Review

Show Notes:

Now I have been getting plenty of questions lately and most of these questions pertains obviously mostly on how to pass the NCLEX Exam.  So, what I did was I did some research outside of the actual “Nclex review content” scenario  and took a step back and really look at the reasons why some people passed there NCEX Exam, the first time they take it.  Its quite obvious that the answer for that would be that the ones that pass on the first time really did studied hard invested plenty of time, energy and effort into the to the review while others, well…  Let me ask you this, have you noticed how some people are just really good in taking exams?. There are usually those people in our lives that just really good at taking exams.  On the outside it doesn’t seem like they’re really are studying that hard or investing that much time (which can be true) or we might not really know how much they’ve studied or how much time they invested yet at the end of the day they still pass their exam on the first try…

Sometimes it boggles our minds and we can even get quite jealous.  Now I think for the most part these people really did invest plenty of the time and energy and resources in passing this exam (which I personally did, and it paid off ) but I also believe that these people do have a good amount of test taking skills because for me personally I really did invest plenty of time, effort, energy and sacrifice in order to pass the NCLEX Exam the first time I took it about three years ago.  Anyhow,  I also believe that these people unconsciously were able to adapt to a certain strategic approach on learning that worked on their own specific learning styles.

I did my own research on most of these test takers and found out that these people are more analytic in their review methods than I thought.

nclex study review pass guides

And this is what I have learned:

You need to learn a deeper level way of studying that is complimentary to our learning style.  When we just try to memorize words it’s what researchers have called the, “shallow level of processing,” basically you are just looking at the words and trying to memorize them without making any connections or understanding (in depth) by looking and analyzing the bigger picture.  Instead, we need a more “deep level processing” way of reviewing the NCLEX.  This can be accomplished by trying to connect it with our own experience and also understanding more in depth the NCLEX Review Contents.

What can really enhance the deeper level processing way of reviewing for the NCLEX Exam  is by allowing your brain to match your learning style whether you are an (auditory learner, visual learner or a tactile learner).  So this includes looking at NCLEX Review Videos (HERE IS THE LINK), maybe even playing an AUDIO NCLEX Review CD in your car while driving (HERE IS THE LINK) or just trying to connect, what you are learning with your everyday experience.

Attention and Interest is an important subject when studying for the NCLEX.  Sometimes, reviewing for the NCLEX exam can just become too tedious and boring.  There are plenty of times when we are reading unconsciously just word after word without actually retaining and understanding the content (which is counter productive).

Therefore, there is no reason for our NCLEX Review not to be fun and interesting (while learning at the same time).  We need to look at other ways such as media (audio and video) and websites to enhance our NCLEX Review.

Don’t settle for boring, check out some stuff below…  : )

TAKE SOME TIME TO CHECK OUT ALLNURSINGNOTES REVIEWS BELOW

newpostncexpack

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Ultimate NCLEX Review on Medications Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology

Neurology Pharmacology

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) NCLEX Review

NCLEX Review on Seizure

Meningitis NCLEX Review

Meningitis  (By: AllNursingNotes)

Lets take a quick look at Meningitis and what we need to know for the NCLEX.

Meningitis is simply:

– an inflammation of the meninges within the brain and spinal cord.

  • * Usually caused by Niesseria meningitidis, Group B Strep and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Again, the two main culprit for Meningitis are

  1. Niesseria meningitidis
  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae

Assessment findings on the patient:

  • * Positive Brudzinski’s Sign

– There is some neck stiffness that causes a patient’s hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed

  • * Positive Kernig’s Sign

– With the patient lying flat, if the patient flexes a hip 90 degrees, and then attempts to extend the lower leg at the knee. Pain on extension is a positive sign.

  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise

Diagnostic Evaluation:

  • Lumbar Puncture
  • Chest X rays

NCLEX Review on Bells Palsy

We are going  to look at NCLEX Review on Neurological Medications (Pharmacology)

To review neurological pharmacology for the NCLEX, it is very important to simplify and of course UNDERSTAND  Neuro medications.

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology: Lets first look at the drugs that affects the PNS.  For the NCLEX, it is very important to understand that the Parasympathetic Nervous System is focused primarily on:

  • – Pupil Constriction (Miosis)
  • – Lacrimation
  • – Salivation
  • – Bronchoconstriction

PNS Medications can also decrease the Heart rate and stimulate gastric secretions.

We can divide the PNS Medications into 4 different groups:

  1. Cholinergic Agonists
  2. Cholinesterase Inhibitor
  3. Anticholinergics
  4. Dopaminergics

NCLEX Review on Cholinergic Medications

Cholinergic Drugs

– Is also called Cholinergic Agonist
– stimulates cholinergic receptors
– mimics acetylchoine

– Used for Urinary Retention (Bethanicol Chloride *Urecholine)

Remeber for the NCLEX, that when we talk about Cholinergic Medications we focus towards the PNS.

Cholinergic drugs produce the same effects as acetylcholine.

Remember for the NCLEX:
– Direct acting cholinergicd are contraindicated with patients with asthma, because it can cause BRONCHOSPASM.

Uses:
Cholinergic muscle stimulants are used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis

NCLEX Drugs:

  • ambenonium chloride (Mytelase)
  • edrophonium chloride (Tensilon)
  • neostigmine (Prostigmine)
  • piridogstimina (Mestinœn).

Cholinergic drugs are also used in control of glaucoma.

NCLEX Drugs:

  • demecarium (Humorsol)
  • echthiophate (Phospholine iodide).

Drugs:

  • Bethanecol Chloride
  • Pilocarpine (Pilocar) *used for glaucoma

Side Effects:

  • Headaches
  • Hypotension
  • Miosis
  • Diarrhea/Cramping
  • Increased Salivation (Dry Mouth)
  • Nausea and Vomiting

Anticholinergic Medications

– Is called Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

  • Inhibits ACh/ Acetylcholine.

– Is also called (Cholinergic Blockers)-
– Helps control the tremors-
– Used to help improve memory in pts. w/ Alzheimer’s Disease (Donezepil Hydrochloride).
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)
– Benztropine Mesylate (Cogentin)
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)

  • Side Effects
    – Salivation
  • – Sweating
  • – Flushing
  • – Headache
  • – Hypotension
  • – Bradycardia

 

Anti-Myasthenic Pharmacology NCLEX Review

– A good use for anti-cholinergic drugs would be for Myasthenia Gravis.

Anti-Myasthenic Medications
– relieves muscle weakness with myasthenia gravis.
– used to diagnose Myasthenia Gravis
– used to distinguish cholinergic crisis from myasthenia gravis.

NCLEX DRUGS:
– Ambenonium Chloride (Mytelase)
– Endrophonium Chloride (Tensilon)
– Neostigmine Bromide (Prostigmin)
– Pyridostigmine Bromide (Mestinon)

ANTICONVULSANTS 

NCLEX Review: Anticonvulsant Medications act upon the CNS or the Central Nervous System.  Anticonvulsant medications helps decrease the firing and inhibits the spread of nerve impulses which results in stabilization of abnormal cells.

The 4 Main Types of Anticonvulsant Medications to know for the NCLEX includes:

  1. Hydantoins
  2. Barbituates
  3. Benzodiazepines
  4. Succinimides

Carbamazepine (Tegretol):
– Can be used for Trigeminal Neuralgia
Used when no response to Lithium

Side Effects:
S/E: Sedation,
granulocytosis
aplastic anemia so
* Make sure to MONITOR the CBC in patient.

NX: monitor CBC and alert for fever/sore throat; birth defects

Valproic Acid: Valproate (Depakene, Depakote):
A psychiatric medication that is used w/manic or schizoaffective;

Other Uses for this psychiatric medication:

  • Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
  • Myoclonic Seizures
  • Partial Seizures

Side Effects:
Severe/Fatal Hepatotoxicity, ↓ platelets, neural tube defects
NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS in Fetus
Rare but FATAL  HEPATOTOXICITY
GI Distress
Weight Gain

Clonazepam (Klonopin):
Benzodiazepine medication for acute mania, acute help while waiting
for Lithium effects to occur ƒ

S/E: Sedation, Anoxia, Disinhibition
effect

HYDANTOINS
– used to treat seizures.
PHENYTOIN (Dilantin)A medication usually seen on the NCLEX exam.
* Decreases the effects of birth control pills.
Dilantin/Phenytoin  10-20 mcg/ml
– Diluted with Normal Saline.

Side Effects:

  • Gingival Hyperplasia (gums that bleed easily)
  • Slurred Speech
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation

BARBITUATES
– used for tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures.

NCLEX DRUGS:
– Phenobarbital (Luminal)
– Primidone (Mysoline)

*Interacts with ALCOHOL.

Side Effects:

  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Hypotension
  • Respiratory Depression

Patient with Bell’s Palsy can be given TYLENOL (Acetominophen)
If overdose, antidote for TYLENOL is Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

 

(Neuro Medications)Based on the 4 Neuromuscular diseases

NCLEX Review on Anti-Parkinsonian Medications
– releases dopamine
– restores balance of neurotransmitters acetylcholine and dopamine in CNS.
* Virtually all of the available drug therapies act to increase the level of dopamine in the brain.

– TWO TYPES:
1. Anticholinergic Medications
2. Dopaminergic Medications

Anticholinergic Medications (Cholinergic Blockers)
– Helps control the tremors
– Benztropine Mesylate (Cogentin)
– Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride (Benadryl)

Dopaminergic Medications
– Levodopa (Dopar)
– Carbidopa-Levodopa (Sinemet)

* Levodopa is contraindicates with patients with angle-closure glaucoma.

SIDE EFFECTS:
Nausea
Orthostatic Hypotension

Dopamine agonists.
Unlike levodopa, dopamine agonists don’t change into dopamine.
Instead, they mimic dopamine effects in your brain.

NCLEX DRUGS:

  • pramipexole (Mirapex)
    ropinirole (Requip)
    apomorphine (Apokyn)

Side effects:
similar to carbidopa-levodopa
includes hallucinations
swelling
sleepiness
hypersexuality
gambling and eating.

NCLEX Review: Neuromuscular Drugs used for Increased in ICP.

Mannitol (Osmitrol)

A loop Diuretic

  • is used to decrease cerebral edema during increased ICP.
  • It is an osmotic diuretic,
  • Electrolytes are also drawn into blood and excreted, so monitor for electrolyte imbalance
  • Hyponatremia is a life threatening side effect, causes seizures and death.
  • Maintain strict I&O.
  • Dobutamine (Dubutrex)
  • Norepinephrine (Levophed)
    – cardiac stimulants used to maintain cerebral perfusion during increased ICP.

Dexamethasone (Decadron)

  • Corticosteroid used to decrease inflammation surrounding a brain tumor
  • Used in medical management of meningitis.
  • Used post craniotomy for cerebral edema
  • Administer IV q 6 hours for 24-72 hours, change to oral a.s.a.p., taper dosage over 5-7 days
  • As with any steroid, fluid retention, increased sugar, lowed immune system
  • Common side effect nasal irritation, cardiovascular edema, hyperglycemia, cataract, oral candidiasis, impaired would healing
  • If using with Mannitol (makes electrolytes be excreted) (by the way the two together are contraindicated according to the book) add potassium-rich foods or supplement to diet.
  • Use good oral hygiene to prevent oral candidiasis

Phenytion (Dilantin)

  • Anticonvulsant – to reduce risk of seizures
  • Especially after supratentorial neurosurgical procedure (prone to seizures)
  • Used to prevent grand mal and complex partial seizures
  • During Ictal phase of seizure give ativan (lorazepam), then start dilantin
  • Life threatening side effects are cardiovascular collapse, Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemias, dermatitis (bullous, exfoliative, or purpuric), Steven-Johnson syndrome.
  • Common side effects gingival hyperplasia (swollen gums), give good mouth care.  Self care pt should brush, floss and massage gums after each meal.

therapeutic level is 10-20 mcg/ml

Do not stop drug abruptly, may precipitate status epilepticus.

Diazepam (Valium)

  • To reduce anxiety

Antiseizure Medications: NCLEX Exam

  • Tegretol
  • Klonopin
  • Keppra
  • Luminal
  • Dilantin-Phenytoin
  • Topamax
  • Depakote

TYLENOL
– Check Direct Bilirubin to determine drug toxicity.

DEMEROL
– Check for Urinary Retention

ASPIRIN Intoxication
– Tinnitus= ear infection

OPIODS
– increase tolerance to pain, decrease perception of pain

highest potency opioids
– morphine, merperidine, methadone

fast acting & high potency opioid
– heroin

lower potency opioid
hydrocodone, codeine

all opioids cause miosis EXCEPT for merperidine.
Because merperidine has muscarinic blocking activity. it actually causes miadriasis
* opioid overdose= Naloxone

Psychiatric Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Psychiatric Pharmacology (Medications)

It will be a guarantee that you will at some point encounter NCLEX questions that challenges your knowledge of Psychiatric Medications/Pharmacology.  For the NCLEX, it is important to simplify the Psychiatric Medications by breaking them down into 4 groups that includes:

  • ♠ ANTIANXIETY/ ANXIOLYTICS
  • ♣ ANTIPSYCHOTICS
  • ♥ ANTIDEPRESSANTS
  • ♦ ANTI-MANIC/ MOOD STABILIZERS

1. Antianxiety/ Anxiolytics

Classes of primary anxiety disorders 
1.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
2.panic disorder
3.OCD
4.Phobias
5. PTSD
6. Acute stress disorder

Benzodiazepines
(mechanism of action)
increase response to GABA

2. Antipsychotics

  • Phenothiazines
  • Non Phenothiazines

3. Antidepressants

  • TCA
  • MAOI
  • SSRI

4. AntiManic/ Mood Stabilizers

  • Lithium

NCLEX Review Psychiatric PharmacologyAntianxiety Drugs

♦ Antianxiety Drugs

Benzodiazepines
(- can also be used with seizures and epilepsy)

Alprazolan (Zanax): Short term only as ↑ dose needed over time

These drugs are used to manage anxiety disorders & for short term treatment of anxiety symptoms.

USE: Panic attacks, anxiety disorders, muscle relaxation, seizures, pre-anesthetic sedation, alcohol withdrawal.

NCLEX MEDS:
alproxolam (Xanax)
lorazepam (Ativan)
diasepam (Valium)
busprione (BuSpar)
hydroxyzine (Vistral)

Librium

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Early: drowsiness
  • orthostatic hypotension
    dizziness
  • dry mouth
  • Parkinsonian Symptoms
    lightheadedness
    headache.

Later: Lethargy, apathy, fatigue, Anger Psychosis (irrational).

Indications for use: Recurrent depression, Psychomotor retardation,
Depression w/no clear cause, Family Hx, Chronic pain, Eneuresis

 ♣ Antipsychotics

NCLEX Drugs : Antipsychotics

  • Chloropromazine HCL (Thorazine)
  • Haloperidol (Haldol)
  • Resperidone (Risperdal)

Side Effects of these drugs would include:

  • Drowsiness
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Diziness
  • Dry Mouth
  • Parkinsonian Symptoms
  • Tardive Dyskenesia
  • Dystonia

♣ Antidepressants 

– All but MAOI block reuptake of serotonin and sometimes norepi
making more available in synapse (↑ mood, ↑ alert, ↑ concentration);
Can be given once a day, but often has 3-4 wk time to therapeutic
effectiveness

Indications for use: Recurrent depression, Psychomotor retardation,
Depression w/no clear cause, Family Hx, Chronic pain, Eneuresis

SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)

SSRI
S/E: Sexual depression/dysfunction, N/V/D, insomnia, anxiety, dry
mouth, tremor, fatigue, H/A, toxic s/e rare

Remember with SSRI’s: 

Never take w/MAOIs, Liver/renal/CBC test, d/c meds slow

NCLEX Medications:

Fluoxetine (Prozac): ↓ sedation, ↓ S/E
Sertraline (Zoloft): ↓ toxicity in OD, ↓ S/E, ↓ halflife than Prozac
Paroxetine (Paxil): Safest for elderly, Lowest halflife
Fluvoxamine (Luvox) ƒ Citalopram (Celexa)
Escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro)

SNRIs (Serotonin/Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)

Pros: ↓ sex probs, ↓ insomnia, response quicker, anxiolytic like
Cons: ↑ BP, Sedating, Anticholinergic s/e (constipation, sweat)
Effexor (Venlafaxine): S/E: dizziness, migraine, wt gain
Serzone
Trazodone (Desyrel)
Remeron: S/E: somnolence, dizzi, wt gain; Adverse: agranulocytosis,
neutropenis; NX: some respond well only to this

Norepi/dopamine agonist

Facts: Stimulant inhibits reuptake and ↑ release of Norepi/dopa
Cons: ↑ seizure risk ƒ Bupropion HCl (Wellbutrin): No effect on serotonin/ MAO

Tricyclics

NCLEX Medications:

Imapramine (Tofranil), Desipramine (Norpramine, Pertofrane),
Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl),
Protriptyline (Vivactil), Doxepin (Sinequan)

Side Effects:

Anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, constipation, urinary
hesitant/retention, sweating, drowsiness, blurred vision); EPS
Cardiovascular (postural ↓ BP, ↑ HR, heart conduction probs); Glaucoma
worsened, Toxic confusion/psychosis; Wt gain, SZ,
Overdose: 1000-4000 mg can be Fatal

MAOIs

Facts: Monoamine (epi, norepi, sero, dopa) oxidase responsible for
destroying excess/used MAs; Inhibiting enzyme ↑ level of all

NCLEX Medications:

  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
    Isocarboxazide (Marplan)
    Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Remember for the NCLEX:

Some foods contain (tyramine) which if not metabolized in
liver causes ↑↑ HT and CVA; Foods include aged cheese, chicken liver,
beer, red wine, chocolate, cold/sinus meds, diet pills; Avoid certain
restaurants (Chinese); 1o s/s is severe h/a

Side Effects:  ↓BP most critical; Orthostatic ↓BP, dizziness, ↑ appetite
Key: ↑ BP is toxic effect (wrong food); ↓ BP is med caused S/E

Antimanic Drugs 

Lithium***
Used in psychiatric disorders non-responsive to other meds;
Blood level of 0.1-1.5 key as toxic death possible. Higher only
w/psychosis; Must maintain adequate salt in diet (consistent level,
not too ↑ or ↓)
Indications: Acute Mania, Bipolar prophylaxis

Possible use:

Bulimia, Alcohol abuse, Schizoaffective (mania or
depression with schizo like delusions/hallucinations/etc)

Side Effects:

Major risk of hypothyroidism and urine concentration probs;
Parkinson like, cog wheeling, sluggish, forgetful; Chronic N/V/D so
take w/food; Wt gain, Polydypsia, Polyuria, Allergic rash w/capsules

Remember: Never take with diuretics or Anticholinergic meds

Endocrine Pharmacology

NCLEX Review Endocrine Pharmacology (Medications)

NCLEX Review on the Endocrine System: HYPERTHYROIDISM

NCLEX Review on the Endocrine System: HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

♠ Growth Hormones

Drugs:
Somatropin (Genotropin)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Causes skin lesions

ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES

– Enhances the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
– causes vasoconstriction
– promotes an anti diuretic effect.
– Used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS

– Desmopressin
– Vasopressin (pitressin)

SIDE EFFECTS:

– water intoxication
– hyponatremia
– abdominal cramps
– heaadachesl
– nausea
– hypertension

THYROID GLAND

Thyroid Hormones

  • – Levothyroxine T4
  • – Levothroid
  • – Synthroid

Anti-thyroid Drugs

  • – Iodine
  • – Iodine Iodide
  • – Prophythioracil (PTU)

PARATHYROID GLAND  (Anti-hypercalcemic Drugs)

Drugs:
– Calcitrol (Rocatrol)
– Calcium Carbonate
– Calcium Citrate

ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS 
(INSULIN DRUGS)

Insulin
– reduces the serum glucose level by increasing glucose transport into cells.

Types:
Rapid-Acting
Intermediate acting
Long-Acting

ORAL HYPOGLYCEMICS

– Increases the serum calcium levels, causing a decrease in serum
phosphate levels.

Cardiac Pharmacology

Cardiac System NCLEX Review

Urinary System NCLEX Review (By: AllNursingNotes)

Below shows the (Cardiac Drug Categories)

that correlates to each of the individual initials.

NCLEX Review on Cardiac Pharmacology

As you have learned in Nursing School, beta adrenergic blockers are drugs that help lower blood pressure, puls rate and cardiac output. Beta Blockers are an important set of drugs to know for the NCLEX. Sometimes, beta blockers are also used to treat migraine headaches an other vascular headaches. Beta blockers are also used to treat glaucoma and used to prevent myocardial infarctions. Try to remember that what beta blockers do is they act by blocking the symathetic vasomotor response. For the NCLEX, try to remember that the syllable for beta blockers is usally (olol).

Potential side effects of beta blocker that is necessary to know for the NCLEX would include: Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea and some of the symptoms may MASK HYPOGLYCEMIC SYMPTOMS.

NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIENTS TAKING BETA BLOCKERS: Make sure that you monitor the client’s blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, before administering the beta blocker. Monitor the client for signs of edema. The nurse should also assess the lungs sounds for signs of rales and ronchi. When patient are taking beta blockers, it is also very important to monitor the changes in lab values such as (protien, BUN and creatinine) which can indicate nephrotic syndrome.

Nursing teaching for the NCLEX would include: Teaching the Client to rise slowly (ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION) * (A SAFETY ISSUE), report any signs of bradycardia, dizziness, confusion depression or fever. It is also very important to taper off the medication properly.

Cardiac Glycosides
– increases the force of contraction.
– a positive inotropic effects

ACE Inhibitor
– prevents vasoconstriction by blocking conversion of Angiotensin 1 to Angiotensin 2.
– Used to treat Hypertension
– Avoid using potassium suplemments

SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Persistent Coughing
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Headache

NCLEX Review on Hypertension

NCLEX Review Pharmacology: Corticosteroids and Antihistamines

Corticosteroids:

  • Triamcinoslone
  • Corticosteroid
  • allergy & ASTHMA
  • Nasocort spray, Amcort

Side Effect: 

Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym

Mometasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasonex
s,e: Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion,cold sym

Fluticasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Flonase
Side Effects:

Dysphonia, hoarseness
oropharyngeal fungal infec
headache
sore throart
nasal congestion

Beclomethasone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Beclovent, Beconase

Side Effects:

  • Dysphonia, hoarseness
  • oropharyngeal fungal infec
  • headache
  • sore throart
  • Dyspepsia

Triamcinoslone
Corticosteroid
allergy & ASTHMA
Nasocort spray, Amcort

Side Effects:

  • Dysphonia, hoarseness
    oropharyngeal fungal infec
    headache
    sore throart
    nasal congestion,cold sym

Antihistamine

Loratadine (Claritin)
antihistamine
Claritin
Side Effects:

  • drowsiness

Remember:
management of seasonal rhinitis
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
take on empty stomach, 1 hr b4 or 2 hrs after meals
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
antihistamine
Side Effects:

  • Drowsiness

nurse. consd.:
management of rhinitis, allergy symptoms, chronic idiopathic urticaria
avoid alcohol, other CNS depressants
Cetirizine HCI (Zyrtec)
Antihistamine

Side Effects:

  • drowsiness, fatique, dry mouth

Relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis
relief of perennial allergic rhinitis caused by molds, animal dander, and other allergens
avoid alcohol

Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril)
antihistamine
Side Effects:

  • drowsiness, dry mouth

Remember for the NCLEX:
tmt of pruritus, pre-op anxiety, post-op nausea and vomiting, to potentiate opioid analgesics, sedation
-avoid use of alchohol, other CNS depressants
-teach pt. dizziness/drowsiness may occur, use caution in potentially hazardous activities

NCLEX Review Respiratory Pharmacology

Respiratory Pharmacology

Bronchodilators
-Reverses bronchoconstriction
– opens air passages

can be: Adrenergics, Xanthines, Anticholinergic

Antitussives

– suppresses the cough reflex.
– inhibits the cough reflex

Drugs: Opiod, Codiene, hydrobromide (Robitussin)

ANTITUSSIVES

These drugs depress cough center in medulla or by anesthetizing
stretch receptors in respiratory tract.

USE: to relieve a nonproductive cough.

MEDS: Codeine Sulfate (narcotic based), Bensonatate (Tessalon Perles),
Dextromethorphan (Robitussin)

Antihistamines

– Blocks the action of Histamine

Opiod Antagonists

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

Antiemetics
These drugs treat nausea & vomiting. Inhibits the CTZ and the brain’s neurotransmitters.
USE: Treat nausea & vomiting.

MED: prochloperazine HCL (Compazine)
promethazine HCL (Phenergan)

Antacids

ANTACIDS These drugs neutralize or reduce acidity.

USE: GERD & heartburn.

MED: aluminum hydroxide gel (Amphojel -constipate)
Magnesia (Milk of Magnesia -diarrhea) magaldrate (Riopan).
ANTACIDS A/R: diarrhea, constipation.

S/I: DO NOT GIVE with any other drugs or within 2 hours of taking other drugs. 1-2 hours after meals.

Histamine 2 Antagonists

USE: duodenal ulcer, gastric hyper-secretory conditions, GERD.

MED: All end in “dine”. cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). HISTAMINE2 ANTAGONISTS A/R: Dizziness, somnolence (sleepy) headache.

MED: All end in “dine”). cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). HISTAMINE2 ANTAGONISTS S/I: Do not give with any other drugs or within 2 hours of taking other drugs. 1-2 hours after meals.

MED: All end in “dine”). cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famatidine (Pepcid). PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS These drugs supress enzyme called AT pase (without ATpase – do not have gastric secretions).

USE: hypyloric bacteria (H Pyloric).

MED: esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium), omeprazole (Prilosec), Pantoprazole sodium (Protonix). PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS A/R: Headache, Nausea, Diarrhea.

MED: esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium), omeprazole (Prilosec), Pantoprazole sodium (Protonix). ANTICHOLINERGICS These drugs decrease amount of acid secretion (dry out).

USE: Peptic ulcer.

MED: propantheline (Pro-Banthine), glycopyrrolate (Robinul) ANTICHOLINERGICS A/R: dry mouth, blurred vision.

S/I Give ice.

MED: propantheline (Pro-Banthine), glycopyrrolate (Robinul)

ANTIDIARRHEAL

These drugs decrease intestinal peristalsis.

USE: Diarrhea

MED: diphenozylate with atropine (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium A-D) ANTIDIARRHEAL A/R: abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting & constipation. NOTE: atropine based = opioids feeling and is habit forming.

MED: diphenozylate with atropine (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium A-D) ANTIDIARRHEAL S/I: give after every episode of diarrhea.

NCLEX Review Gastrointestinal Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on Hiatal Hernia

Antiemetics
– helps alleviate nausea and vomiting.

  • Drugs:
    Ondansetron (Zofran)
    Prochlorperazine (Compazine)

Antacids
– provide protection coating on the stomach lining.
– helps neutralize gastric acid.

  • Drugs:
    – Aluminum Hydroxide Gel (Amphojel)
    – Aluminum/Magnesium Hydroxide (Maalox)
    – Ranitidine (Zantac)

Side Effects:
Constipation
Diarrhea
Alkalosis

Anticholinergics
– helps alleviate pain from peptic ulcer

  • Drugs:
    Atropine Sulfate
    Dicyclomine (Bentyl)
    Glycopyrrolate (Robinul)

Side Effects:
– Dry Mouth (decrease salivation)
– Constipation (decrease persitalsis)
– Urinary Retention

Antisecretory Agents (H2 Antagonists and PPI’s)

– inhibits gastric acid secretion

H2 Antagonists
– Famotidine (Pepcid)
– Ranitidine (Zantac)
– Cimetidine (Tagament)

Proton Pump Inhibitor
– Omeprazole (Prilosec)
– Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
– esomeprazole (Nexium)

Side Effects:
– Decrease in bone density with long term use.

Antidiahrreals
– helps alleviate diarrhea
– promote formation of stools

Drugs:
– Bismuth Subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol)

Side Effects:
Constipation
Urinary Retention

Laxatives/ Cathartics
– helps alleviate or prevent constipation
– promotes evacuation of stools.
– Oral or rectal

Fecal Softeners
– Docusate Sodium (Colace)

Bulk Forming Laxatives
– psyllium (Metamucil)

Colon Irritants
– Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)

Saline Cathartics
– increases osmotic pressure within intestine
– Magnesium Hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)

Side Effects:
Dependency of Use

NCLEX Review Neurological Pharmacology

Urinary Pharmacology

NCLEX Review: Urinary Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on the Diseases of the Urinary System

NCLEX Review on Urilothiasis

Thiazide Diuretics
– used for Hypertension
– Edema
– Heart Failure

DRUGS:
Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
Hydrochlorothiazide (HyroDIURIL)

Side Effects:
Orthostatic Hypotension
Hypokalemia
Hypoglycemia
Diziness
Heaches

Loop Diuretics

DRUGS:
Furosemide (Lasix)
Bumetanide (Bumex)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Metabolic Alkalosis

* Monitor Digoxin Levels if patient is taking Digoxin.

Osmotic Diuretics

Drugs; Mannitol
Used for: Cerebral Edema

Side Effects:

Potassium Sparing Diuretics

Drugs: Spironolactone (Aldactone)

SIDE EFFECTS:
Hyperkalemia
Increased BUN Levels
Nausea & Vomiting
Anorexia
Diarrhea

* Monitor for signs of Hyperkalemia
– Confusion
– Hyperexcitability
– muscle weakness
– flaccid paralysis

NCLEX Review Hematological Pharmacology

Hematological Pharmacology

NCLEX Review on Anemia

NCLEX Review on Polycythemia Vera

NCLEX Review on Hematology Medications

– prevents formation of clots by inhibiting factors in the clotting.
– used for DVT, PE, and atrial fibrillation

– Enoxaparin sodium  (Lovenox)
– Warfarin Sodium (Coumadin)

THROMBOLYTICS

– activates the plasminogen, leads its conversion to plasma

– Streptokinase (Streptase)
– Alteplase (Activase)

ANTIPLATELET DRUGS

Anticoagulants

Heparin
anticoagulant
s.e.: hemorrhage
tissue irritation/pain w/injection
anemia
thrombocytopenia
fever
N.C.: maintain patency of IV-(heparin flush in low doses)
-therapeutic PPT @1.5-2.5 X the control w/out signs of hemorrhage

-antidote: protamine sulfate w/in 30 min
-hemorrhage: bleeding gums, nose, unusual, black tarry stools, hematuria, fall in hemacrit or bl. pressure, guaiac-positive stools
-avoid ASA & NSAIDs (watch for addition in OTC)
-wear med. info tag
RX- preg C

Warfarin (Coumadin)
AnticoagulantAn
s.e.: hemorrhage
Diarrhea, Rash, Fever
N.C.: mgmt of pulmonary emboli, deep-vein thrombosis, MI, atrial dysrhythmias, postcardiac valve replacement

-antidote: vit. K, whole bl, plasma
-avoid foods high in Vit K, green leafy vegs.
-do not interchange brands, potencies may not be equivalent
-avoid ASA & NSAIDS + OTC meds that contain them

NCLEX Review Antibiotics Pharmacology

Anti-Infective Pharmacology

Aminoglycosides

Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin (Amikin, Garamycin, Tobrax)
Anti-infective
s.e.:do not use during preg. may cause bilateral congenital deafness,
Ototoxicity cranial nerve VIII
Nephrotoxicity
Allegric reactions: fever, diff. breathing, rash
Remember for the NCLEX:

  • -monitor for superinfection(diarrhea, URI, coated tongue)
  • -immediately report hearing or balance problems
  • -encourage fluids 8-10 glasses daily

Antifungals: Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
Anti-infective
s.e.: bl, kidney, heart,liver abnormalities
GI upset, Hypokalemia-induced muscle pain, CNS disturbances, inefficient hearing, skin irritation and thrombosis if IV infiltrates
N.C.: trmt of histoplasmosis, skin infections, septicemia, meningitis in HIV pts
-monitor vital signs, report fever or change in function, especially NS
-check for hypokalemia
-meticulous care and observation of injection site
-benefits balanced agst serious
preg B

Antifungals: Fluconazole (Diflucan)
s.e.: Nausea, Diarrhea, Headache, Abd. pain, taste distortion
N.C.: trmt of vaginal, esophageal, or systemic candidiasis
-prothrombin time is increased after warfarin usage
-take missed dose asap, but do not double dose
-reduces metabolism of tolbutamide, glyburide, and glipizide, so bl. glucose levels shoud be monitored in diabetics
-preg C

Anti-malarials: Hydrozychloroquine (Plaquenil)
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis
-peak 1-2 hrs
-take at same time ea day to maintain bl levels
-for malaria, prophylaxis should be started 2 wks b4 exposure and for 4-6 wks after leaving exposure area
preg C

Anti-malarials:
Quinine Sulfate
Anti-infective
s.e.: eye disturbances, NV, Anorexia
N.C.: mgmt of malaria,nocturnal leg cramps
-peak 1-3 hrs
-take same time ea day to maintain bl. levels
-avoid OTC cold meds, tonic water
-preg X

Anti-protozoals: Metronidazole (Flagyl, Flagyl ER)
anti-infective
CNS symptoms, abd cramps, metallic taste,
N.C.: trtmt of wide variety of inf.including trichomoniasis and giardiasis
=IV:immediate onset, PO-pk 1-2 hrs
=dark-reddish brown urine
=avoid hazardous activities
=trtmt in both partners for trichomoniasis
=do not drink alcohol in any form, during and 48 hrs after use, disulfiram-like reaction can occur
preg B

Anti-tuberculars: Isoniazid (INH)
anti-infective
s.e.: peripheral neuropathy, liver damage
N.C.: prevention and trtmt of TB
=PO/Im:onset rapid, pk 1-2 hrs, dur: up to 24 hrs
=contact MD if signs of hepatitis:yellow eyes or skin, NV, anorexia, dark urine, unusual tiredness, or weakness
-contact MD if signs of peripheral neuropathy: numbness, tingling or weakness
preg C

Anti-virals: Acyclovir (Zovirax)
anti-infective
s.e.: headache, bl. dyscrasias
N.C: trmt of herpes, varicella
=IV: onset & peak immediate
=PO: absorbed minimally, onset unknown, pk 1-1/2 hrs
=do not break, crush or chew
=PO: take w/out regard to meals w/full glass water
=if does missed take asap, up to 1 hr b4 next does
=contact MD if sore throat, fever and fatique, could be signs of superinfection
preg B

Anti-viral: Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
anti-infective
s.e.: NV
N.C:-used as prophylaxis in adults for influenza, including Avian Bird Flu
-treats uncomplicated acute flu symptoms in pts that are symptomatic for 2 days or less
-should not be used as substitute for flu vaccine
-may be taken w/out regard for meals
preg C

Anti-virals: Valacyclovir HCI
(Valtrex)
anti-infective
NV, abd. cramps, headache
N.C: trtmt genital herpes
=treats Herpes Zoster(shingles)
=treats Herpes labialis (cold sores)
=pts shoudl drink plenty of fluids during trtmt
=avoid sexual ontact when lesions are visible
=use with caution in preg & nursing mothers
preg B

Anti-Viral: Zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir
anti-infective
s.e.: fever, headache, malaise, NVD, Dizziness, insomnia, dyspepsia, anorexia, rash
N.C: mgmt of HIV inf. & prevention of HIV following needlestick
-GI upset and insomnia resolve after 3-4 wks
-PO: pk 1/2-1 1/2 hrs
preg C

Cephalosporins, 1st generation :
Cefadroxil (Duricef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media, tonsillitis & UTIs
=peak 1- 1 1/2 hrs, dur: 12-24 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephalexin (Keflex, Keflet)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of upper and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, otitis media,
=IM:peak 1 hrs, dur: 6-12 hrs;
IV: pk 5 min, dur 4-6 hrs
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen.
Cephapirin (Cefadyl)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of lower respiratory tract,skin infections, endocarditis, bacterial peritonitis
=peak 30 min, dur: 4-6 hrs; up to 12 w/decreased urinary ouput
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins, 1st gen:
Cephradine (Velosef)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of serious respiratory tract, and skin infections, otitis media,& UTIs
=peak 1- 2 hrs, dur: usually 6 but up to 12 hrs w/decreased renal function
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins 2nd gen:
Cefaclor (Ceclor, Ceclor CD)
anti-infective
s.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract,bone, joint and skin infections, otitis media,
=peak 1/2- hrs,extended release pk 1 1/2-2 1/2 hrs
=take for 10-14 days to prevent superinfection
preg B

Cephalosporins 2nd. gen:
Cefamandole (Mandol)
anti-infectives.e. Diarrhea
N.C: tmt of respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin infections, peritonitis, septicemia, surgical prophylaxis
=peak 1/2-1 hrs
IV or IM
-avoid alcohol
preg B

NCLEX Review Opiods and Opiod Analgesic Pharmacology

Opiod Analgesic

Opioid Analgesic

  1. Methadone
  2. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
  3. Meperidine
  4. Codeine
  5. Opioid Analgesic
  6. Morphine
    (MS Contin)

Side Effect:

  • Drowsiness, sedation
    nausea, vomiting, anorexia
    Respiratory depression
    constipation, cramps
    orthostatic hypotension
    confusion, headache

 

Analgesic

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Analgesics-nonopioid
s.e.: anemia (long-term use)
Liver and kidney failure (high doses)

Remember:
-take crushed or whole w/ full glass of water
-can give / food or milk to decrease GI upset
-signs of chronic poisoning: rapid, weak pulse, dyspnea, cold, clammy extremities
-signs of chronic overdose; bleeding, bruising, malaise, fever, sore throat
Aspirin
Analgesics- nonopioid
s.e: nausea, vomiting, rash

Remember:

– long-term use: liver damage, dark urine, clay-colored stools
-arthritis, give 30 min b4 exercise, may take 2 wks b4 full effect is felt
-discard tabs if vinergar-like smell
-do not give to children under 18-Reyes syndrome
OTC: preg C

Celecoxib (Celebrex)
analgesics-nonopioid
s.e: Fatique, anxiety, depression, nervousness, NV, anorexia, dry mouth, constipation
-can take w/out meals
-do not take if allergic to sulfonamides, aspirin or NSAIDs
-Rx: preg C for 1st & 2nd trimester
Preg D for 3rd trimester

Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)
analgesic-nonopioid
s.e.: headache, Nausea, anorexia, GI bleeding, blood dyscrasias
-contact clinician if ringing or roaring in ears, =toxicity
-if changes in urinary pattern, increase wgt, edema, increased, pain in joints, fever, bl in urine=may indicate kidney damage
-use sunscreen for photosensitivity
-avoid use w/ ASA. NSAIDs, and alcohol,

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Management and Delegation plays a big part in the NCLEX.   As a matter of fact “Management of Care” is about 16-22% of the entire exam.  Managment of care acording to NCSBN is composed of:
Direct care that enhances delivery.
– Advance Directives
– Interdisciplinary Team
– Confidentiality

If we really look at the big picture, if I am lucky enough to get the least number of questions in my exam which is about (75 Questions) that would mean that aproximately 13- 16 questions (spread out) out of the 75 questions would be in relation to management and delegation.  If we say we have mastered this area of the NCLEX, then this can SUPERBLY benifit us, and our chance of passing the NCLEX.

I personally do not look at Management & Delegation as something of a criteria of its own (even if NCSBN thinks it is).  Because “management and delegation” in the NCLEX is not in sync with the concept of “Management & Delegation” in regards with, lets say a Nurse Manager.  Management and Delegation in the NCLEX is more of delegating and planning of interventions and assignment based on a “Client’s Status” and another personel’s level of “Competency” (usual delegation between YOU the nurse, the LPN and the CNA).

To learn more about how to do well with management questions please please try NCLEX 26, you will be glad you did.

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

%d bloggers like this: